There is no USS deficit – and here’s my working – Sean Wallis

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 05/03/2018 - 12:24am in


pensions, Deficit

Published as Mathematical operations with the Normal distribution, corp.ling.stats

In my Made in Westminster post I summarised a financial and political analysis of the USS pension deficit. I also run a blog for discussing statistics in corpus linguistics, and it is there that I have published my working (unlike UUK).

Case study: The declared ‘deficit’ in the USS pension scheme

At the time of writing nearly two hundred thousand university staff in the UK are active members of a pension scheme called USS. This scheme draws in income from these members and pays out to pensioners. Every three years the pension is valued, which is not a simple process. The valuation consists of two aspects, both uncertain:

  • to value the liabilities of the pension fund, which means the obligations to current pensioners and future pensioners (current active members), and
  • to estimate the future asset value of the pension fund when the scheme is obliged to pay out to pensioners.

What happened in 2017 (and happened in the last two valuations) is that the pension fund has declared itself to be in deficit, meaning that the liabilities are greater than the assets. However, in all cases this ‘deficit’ is a projection forwards in time. We do not know how long people will actually live, so we don’t know how much it will cost to pay them a pension. And we don’t know what the future values of assets held by the pension fund will be.

The September valuation

In September 2017, the USS pension fund published a table which included two figures using the method of accounting they employed at the time to value the scheme.

  • They said the best estimate of the outcome was a surplus of £8.3 billion.
  • But they said that the deficit allowing for uncertainty (‘prudence’) was –£5.1 billion.

Now, if a pension fund is in deficit, it matters a great deal! Someone has to pay to address the deficit. Either the rules of the pension fund must change (so cutting the liabilities) or the assets must be increased (so the employers and/or employees, who pay into the pension fund must pay more). The dispute about the deficit is now engulfing UK universities with strikes by many tens of thousands of staff, lectures cancelled, etc. But is there really a ‘deficit’, and if so, what does this tell us?

The first additional bit of information we need to know is how the ‘uncertainty’ is generated. In February 2018 I got a useful bit of information. The ‘deficit’ is the lower bound on a 33% confidence interval. This is an interval that divides the distribution into thirds by area. One third is below the lower bound, one third above the upper bound, and one third is in the middle. This gives us a picture that looks something like this:

Sketch of the probability distribution of the difference between USS assets and liabilities projected on September valuation assumptions (gradual ‘de-risking’).

Of course, experimental statisticians will never use such an error-prone confidence interval. We wouldn’t touch anything below 95%! To make things a bit more confusing, the actuaries talk about this having a ‘67% level of prudence’ meaning that two-thirds of the distribution is above the lower bound. All of this is fine, but it means we must proceed with care to decode the language and avoid making mistakes.

In any case, the distribution of this interval is approximately Normal. The detailed graphs I have seen of USS’s projections are a bit more shaky (which makes them appear a bit more ‘sciency’), but let’s face it, these are projections with a great deal of uncertainty. It is reasonable to employ a Normal approximation and use a ‘Wald’ interval in this case because the interval is pretty much unbounded – the outcome variable could eventually fall over a large range. (Note that we recommend Wilson intervals on probability ranges precisely because probability p is bounded by 0 and 1.)

‘No deficit’ letter to Guardian

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 04/03/2018 - 5:07am in


pensions, Deficit

University pension ‘deficit’ should be addressed by Government guarantee

Add your name

The University strikes over the future of the USS pension scheme reach a pivotal point this week. The employers’ federation, Universities UK, is deeply divided, with some, like Imperial College, calling for an “evidence-based” valuation of the scheme, while others blame the Pension Regulator for the current valuation method.

The evidence shows there is no deficit, and there is no need for either party to pay into the scheme to “solve” a non-existent problem. But there seems to be a political blockage which must be promptly addressed.

The trigger for the current dispute is a valuation of the pension fund related to the assumption – common in pension valuations – that the scheme should be evaluated by a method related to the very particular circumstances of employer bankruptcy.

It is further assumed that, in such circumstances, the pension fund would divest from the stock market and buy government bonds and gilts. Only by employing both assumptions does the valuation obtain a possible negative outcome.

However, the first assumption is a political impossibility, or it should be for any sitting government. The “employer” in the case of USS is in fact 350 employers, including some 68 large pre-92 universities. Since USS’s inception, no member university has ever gone bankrupt. If the current government is contemplating the closure of its pre-92 university sector, we think they have an obligation to tell the students, their parents and indeed the whole country!

It makes no sense to require USS to employ this ‘gilts-based’ measure. There is no deficit in USS. On an ongoing basis, the risk of default is zero. If a guarantee to the USS Trustees is required to secure this agreement at ACAS talks this week, we call on the Conservative government Minister for Higher Education, Sam Gyimah MP, to give it.

In the meantime, we call on both UUK and UCU to press the government for the same guarantee. University staff should not pay for a non-existent deficit.

Sean Wallis, University College London (UCU NEC, branch vice president, co-editor of The Alternative White Paper for Higher Education)
Prof John Holmwood, University of Nottingham (Campaign for the Public University (CPU), AWP co-editor)
Rachel Cohen, City University of London (UCU NEC, AWP co-editor)
Tom Hickey, University of Brighton (Brighton UCU and Council for the Defence of British Universities (CDBU), AWP co-editor)
Prof David Midgley, University of Cambridge (CDBU)
Carlo Morelli, University of Dundee (UCU NEC, UCU USS negotiator)
Marion Hersh, University of Glasgow (UCU USS negotiator, branch equality officer)
Nicholas Cimini, Edinburgh Napier University (EIS-ULA National President)
Arthur Nicoll, Dundee City UNISON (UNISON branch communications officer, UNISON Scottish local government committee, TU representative (chair) on Tayside LGPS Pension Fund Board)
Prof Howard Hotson, University of Oxford (CDBU executive committee member)
Prof Phil Ashworth, University of Brighton (Associate Pro-Vice-Chancellor)
Robin Whitaker, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada (MUNFA president)
Lesley Kane, Open University (UCU NEC, UCU branch president)
Julie Hearn, Lancaster University (UCU NEC, UCU branch president)
Christina Paine, London Metropolitan University (UCU NEC, UCU branch secretary)
Sue Abbott, Newcastle University (UCU NEC)
Nita Sanghera, Bournville College (UCU NEC, UCU black members representative)
Elane Heffernan, Hackney College (UCU NEC)
Jeff Fowler, Sunderland University (UCU NEC, UCU branch secretary)
Jo McNeill, University of Liverpool (UCU branch president)
Prof Des Freedman, Goldsmiths, University of London (UCU branch VP)
Matthew Nelson, SOAS, University of London
Anne Alexander, University of Cambridge
Chris Jones, NPTC Group (UCU NEC, UCU Cymru)
Mandy Brown, Lambeth College (UCU NEC, UCU London Region secretary)
Prof Clément Mouhot, University of Cambridge
Nils Markusson, Lancster University (UCU branch secretary)
Josh Hollands, University College London (UCU postgraduate rep)
Peter Dwyer, Ruskin College
Des McDermott, Ruskin College (UCU branch chair)
Prof Alex Callinicos, King’s College London
Roddy Slorach, Imperial College London (UCU branch committee member)
Craig Brandist, University of Sheffield (UCU branch president)
Geoff Abbott, Newcastle University
Ioanna Ionannou, University College London (UCU branch committee member)
Prof Kate Sang, Heriot Watt University (UCU branch equalities officer)
Jo Grady, University of Sheffield
James Richards, Heriot Watt University (UCU branch president)
Prof Jo Brewis, University of Leicester
Feyzi Ismail, SOAS, University of London (UCU branch executive committee member)
Angus McNelly, Queen Mary University of London
Gale Macleod, University of Edinburgh
Christopher Bear, Cardiff University
Sarah Joss, Heriot Watt University
Bob L. Sturm, Queen Mary University of London
Manuel Hijano, Durham University
Andrew Flinn, University College London
Prof Victoria Wass, Cardiff University
Jim Brooke, University of Bristol
Grant Buttars, University of Edinburgh
G. Anthony Bruno, Royal Holloway University of London
Prof J. P. E. Harper-Scott, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Pete Dorey, Cardiff University
Prof Wilson McLeod, University of Edinburgh
Paul Booth, University of Keele
Bastiaan Hoogendoorn, Cardiff University
Prof Alan Felstead, Cardiff University
Dana Mills, Oxford Brookes University
Prof Marc Goergen, Cardiff University
Nigel Harwood, University of Sheffield
David Jenkins, Heriot-Watt University
Jason Davies, University College London
Shereen Benjamin, University of Edinburgh (UCU branch committee member)
Aengus Ward, University of Birmingham
Majella Lane, University College London (UCU branch committee member)
Harvey Wiltshire, University College London
Prof Kevin C. MacDonald, University College London
Sarah Beresford, Lancaster University
Prof Diana Paton, Edinburgh University
Prof Rebecca Gould, University of Birmingham
Prof Martin Parker, University of Bristol
Prof Joanna Drugan, University of East Anglia
Robert McKay, University of Sheffield
James Eastwood, Queen Mary University of London (UCU branch health and safety representative)
Anne Cronin, Lancaster University
Prof David Wengrow, University College London
Keith A. Wilson, University of Edinburgh
Prof Malcolm Povey, University of Leeds (UCU branch committee member)
Andrea Frank, Cardiff University
Prof Scott Arthur, Heriot-Watt University
Mariam Motamedi-Fraser, Goldsmiths, University of London
Prof Laurence Ray, University of Kent
Thomas Allmer, University of Stirling
C J Queenan, Heriot-Watt University
Jana Bacevic, University of Cambridge
Prof Marc Desmulliez, Heriot-Watt University
Donna Brown, Royal Holloway, University of London (UCU branch vice president)
Prof Geoffrey Chew, Royal Holloway, University of London (retd.)
Ruth Stirton, University of Sussex
Ulrike Marx, University of Leicester
Prof Phil Taylor, University of Strathclyde
Kathleen O’Donnell, independent academic
Prof Roger Ingham, University of Southampton (UCU former branch president)
Prof Christopher MacLeod, Cardiff University
Joseph Smith, University of Stirling (UCU branch vice president)
John Miller, University of Sheffield
Mike Finn, University of Exeter (UCU branch secretary)
Jonathan Fanning, University of York (UCU branch committee member)
Christopher Roche, University of Bath (UNISON branch secretary (pc))
Vicky Singleton, Lancaster University
David Stewart, Newcastle University
Jess Anderson, University of Strathclyde
Sally Pellow, University of Reading (UCU branch secretary)
Adam Piette, University of Sheffield
Luke Martell, University of Sussex
Marton Racz, City, University of London
Ricardo Bermüdez-Otero, University of Manchester
Prof Sin Yi Cheung, Cardiff University
Elisa Cuevas Garcia, University College London
Prof Manos Tsakiris, Royal Holloway, University of London
Jonas Larsson, Royal Holloway, University of London
Ulrike Sommer, University College London
Innes M. Keighren, Royal Holloway, University of London
Liz Morrish, York St John University
Prof Andrew Sayer, Lancaster University
Lorena Lombardozzi, Open University
Tom Webster, University of Edinburgh
Robert Gillett, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Michael Fischer, University of Kent
Alasdair Pinkerton, Royal Holloway University of London
Jo VanEvery (formerly) University of Birmingham
Darren Webb, University of Sheffield
Emil Dauncey, Royal Holloway University of London
Simon Williams, University of Sussex (UCU branch committee member)
Mary Phillips, University of Bristol
Laurie Parsons, Royal Holloway University of London
George King, University of South Africa (retd.)
Ian Stark, University of Edinburgh
Prof Simon Lilley, University of Leicester
Prof John Parrington, University of Oxford (UCU department rep)
Prof Glenn Morgan, University of Bristol
Prof Matthew Beaumont, University College London
Stuart Moir, University of Edinburgh
Sara Grace, University of Salford
Harry Pitts, University of Bristol
Saoirse Caitlin O’Shea, University of Leicester
Saskia Vermeylen, University of Strathclyde
Prof Alison Sealey, Lancaster University
James Cussens, University of York (UCU branch secretary)
Prof Donald Bloxham, University of Edinburgh
Prof Bob Carter, University of Leicester (retd.)
Máire Davies, Royal Holloway, University of London (retd.)
Prof Mario Novelli, University of Sussex
Steve Hammett, Royal Holloway University of London
Vashti Galpin, University of Edinburgh
Prof John Culling, Cardiff University
Andrew Edwards, Imperial College London
Prof Jonathan Bignell, University of Reading
Peter Tennant, University of Leeds
Sue Mew, Middlesex University (UCU branch chair)
Dr Stacy Gillis, Newcastle University
Angela Nobbs, University of Bristol
Prof Miguel Martinez Lucio, University of Manchester
Mike Sheaff, University of Plymouth (UCU branch committee member)
Prof Perdita Stevens, University of Edinburgh
Louise Gaynor, University College London
Benjamin Farrand, University of Warwick
Nadia Edmond, University of Brighton (UCU branch chair, Falmer branch)
Prof Steve Brown, University of Leicester
Amanda Wrigley, University of Reading
Lauren Ackerman, Newcastle University
Domhnall Jennings, Newcastle University
Pragya Vohra, University of York
Matthew Higgins, University of Leicester
Savi Maharaj, University of Stirling
Linda Perriton, University of Stirling
Paul Attinello, Newcastle University
Prof Andrew Sturdy, Bristol University
Saladin Meckled-Garcia, University College London (UCU branch president)
Lucy Donaldson, University of St Andrews
Alex Arthur, University of Aberdeen
Alan Harrison, Brunel University (AUT local association president, retd.)
Sarah Wilson, University of Stirling
Sandy Nicoll, SOAS (UNISON branch secretary)
Charlotte Helen Skeet, University of Sussex (UCU branch equality officer)
Prof David Leat, Newcastle University
Gregory Schwartz, University of Bristol
Natalya Naqvi, University of Oxford
Prof Ahu Tatli, Queen Mary University of London
Emily Ennis, Newcastle University
Delia Lomax, Heriot-Watt University (retd.)
Claire Duncanson, University of Edinburgh
Jeremy Roebuck, Open University
Isabella Muzio, Open University (UCU branch committee member)
Mark Baxendale, Queen Mary University of London
Chris Redfern, Newcastle University
Stephen Smith, Cardiff University
Prof Helen White-Cooper, Cardiff University
Andrea Teti, University of Aberdeen
Alan Southern, University of Liverpool
Prof Ellie Lee, Kent University
Sunil Banga, Lancaster University (UCU branch pensions officer)
Paul Becker, Newcastle University
Lynn Fotheringham, University of Nottingham
Kate Ince, University of Birmingham
Michael McGowan, New City College
Lisa Purse, University of Reading
Prof Bob Jessop, Lancaster University
Monika Hennemann, Cardiff University
Richard Alexander, SOAS University of London
Rachel Clarke, Northumbria University
Prof Martin Paul Eve, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Richard Drayton, King’s College London
Prof Stephen Barker, Cardiff University
Marc-Alban Millet, Cardiff University
Deborah Drake, Open University
Prof J Huw Davies, Cardiff University
Paul Hogan, University College London
Henning Flaecher, University of Bristol
Elmy Thompson, Imperial College
Elke Weissmann, Edge Hill University
Prof Debbie Foster, Cardiff University
Lisa Whistlecroft, Lancaster University (UCU branch secretary, retd.)
Prof Marysia Zalewski, Cardiff University
Koen Slootmaeckers, City, University of London
Prof Hanna Zagefka, Royal Holloway University of London
Andrew Kerr, Cardiff University
Michael Proulx, University of Bath
Prof Alison Wray, Cardiff University
Bella Vivat, University College London
Pasi Ahonen, University of Essex
Paul Prior, University College London
Tonia Kazakopoulou, University of Reading
Jackie Thomas, University College London
Natasa Perovic, University College London
Jakke Tamminen, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Mona Baker, University of Manchester (retd.)
Eric Royal Lybeck, University of Exeter
Steph Lawler, University of York
Szabolcs Mikulas, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Maggie Mort, Lancaster University (UCU department representative)
Prof Tim Dant, Lancaster University (retd.)
Jackie Thomas, University College London
Kate Mackay, Brunel University London
Aurelien Mondon, University of Bath
Kate Mackay, Brunel University London
Prof Christian Hicks, Newcastle University Business School
Sharon Joyce, Newcastle University
Olga Goriunova, Royal Holloway University of London
Manali Desai, University of Cambridge
Prof Mike Wallace, Cardiff University
Philomena Anne Watson, Heriot Watt University Edinburgh
Sita Balani, King’s College London
Prof Thomas Blenkinsop, Cardiff University
Prof Bob Carter, University of Leicester (retd.)
Prof Raymond E. Goldstein, University of Cambridge
Prof Daniela Caselli, University of Manchester
Adriana Pesci, University of Cambridge
Helen Pote, Royal Holloway
Hulya Dagdeviren, University of Hertfordshire
Karolin Hijazi, University of Aberdeen
John Peters, Open University (UCU branch committee member)
Jude Towers, Lancaster University
Prof Seralynne Vann, Cardiff University
David Mabb, Goldsmiths, University of London
Jonathan Ben-Artzi, Cardiff University
Prof Brian Wynne, Lancaster University (retd.)
Sean Ennis, University of Strathclyde
Diana Jeater, University of Liverpool
Amanda Cahill-Ripley, Lancaster University
Nadine Ansorg, University of Kent
Lisa Tilley, Queen Mary University of London
Michael Dritschel, Newcastle University
Prof Mike Danson, Heriot-Watt University
Claire Johnston, Lancaster University
Christine Vie, Leicester (UCU branch president)
Prof Chris Chatwin, University of Sussex (UCU branch president)
Sheena Vachhani, University of Bristol
Prof Jackie Stacey, University of Manchester
Gayle Davis, University of Edinburgh
David Pattie, University of Birmingham
Andrew Henderson, Newcastle University
Heike Arnolds, University of Liverpool
Malgorzata Ciesielska, Teesside University
Kamran Matin, Sussex University
Clare Tebbutt, University of York
Gavin Brown, University of Leicester (UCU branch committee member)
Julia Sutherland, University of Sussex
Prof Valerie Hey, University of Sussex (retd).
Prof Graham Hutton, University of Nottingham
Matthew Needham, University of Edinburgh
Yiannis Gioukas, University of Warwick
Prof Chris Jiggins, University of Cambridge
Spencer Hazel, Newcastle University
Maire Daley, Liverpool Community College
Keir Mobbs, University of Bath (UCU branch committee member)
Adrian Goycoolea, University of Sussex
Prof Mary Laven, University of Cambridge
Jason Scott-Warren, University of Cambridge
David Brockley, University College London
Bill Sillar, University College London
Bruce Baker, Newcastle University (UCU branch president)
Helen Dancer, University of Sussex
Thomas Butts, University of Liverpool
Emma Cheatle, Newcastle University
Liam Campling, Queen Mary University of London
Kenneth Veitch, University of Sussex
Carole Reeves, University College London
Phillip Brooker, University of Liverpool
Terry Cannon, Institute of Development Studies at University of Sussex
Alex Batesmith, University of Liverpool
Matthew Evans, University of Sussex
David Nally, University of Cambridge
David Nally, University of Cambridge
Stefanie Doebler, University of Liverpool
Dr Eric Morier-Genoud, Queen’s University Belfast
John P Carr, University of Cambridge
Prof Alison Phipps, University of Sussex
Xanthe Whittaker, University of Leeds
Rebecca Whiting, Birkbeck, University of London
James Cummings, Newcastle University
Briony Pulford, University of Leicester
Laura Lascau, University College London
Neil Bromwich, Newcastle University
Prof Steve Paterson, University of Liverpool
Elaine Allan, University College London
Prof Graham Turner, Heriot-Watt University
Prof Laurie Stras, University of Southampton (UCU branch president)
Rosalynd Southern, University of Liverpool
Prof Robin Walker, Royal Holloway University of London
Sonja Curtis, University College London (UCU branch committee member)
Charlotte Lemanski, University of Cambridge
Julie Cupples, University of Edinburgh
Prof Adam Hedgecoe, Cardiff Unviersity
Christopher Graves, Cardiff University (UCU branch chair)
Sheila Curran, Open University
Sara Dorman, University of Edinburgh
Andy Lockhart, University of Sheffield
Prof Silvia Zane, University College London
Gerry Mooney, The Open University in Scotland
Prof Janice McLaughlin, Newcastle University
Nadine Lavan, Royal Holloway University of London
Rory Hughes, University of Liverpool (Liverpool Guild of Students Vice President)
Prof Louisa Sadler, University of Essex
Sherrill Stroschein, University College London
Dr Joanna Richardson, University of Sussex
Sarah Staniland, University of Sheffield
Tom Schofield, Newcastle University
Prof Carolyn McGettigan, Royal Holloway, University of London
Rozz Evans, University College London
Prof David Cobham, Heriot-Watt Uni
Dr Maria Garraffa, Heriot-Watt University
Prof Bhaskar Vira, University of Cambridge
Prof Adam Gibson, University College London
Abyd Quinn Aziz, Cardiff University
Prof Lyla Mehta, Institute of Development Studies, UK
Richard Elliott, Newcastle University
Prof John Bowers, Newcastle University
Prof Maria Manuel Lisboa, University of Cambridge
Debra Patten, Newcastle University
Prof Nick Greeves, University of Liverpool
Bob MacCallum, Imperial College London
Abby Tabor, University of Bath
Nousheen Tariq, Imperial College London
Prof Richard Bomphrey, Royal Veterinary College
Colin King, University of Sussex
Ian Pitcher, Newcastle University
Simon Deville, Birkbeck College, University of London (UCU branch secretary)
Sasha Handley, University of Manchester
Hilda Palmer, Greater Manchester Hazards Centre
Prof Paula Hyde, University of Manchester
Gerhard Wolf, University of Sussex
Simon Rushton, Cardiff University
Tristan Beknschtein, University of Cambridge
Neil Gascoigne, Royal Holloway, University of London
John Child, University of Sussex
Alex Bellem, University of Durham
Mark Cuthbert, Cardiff University
James Dyke, University of Southampton
Harry Farmer, University of Bath, University College London
Ben Pope, Tübingen University
Ann Molloy, University of Liverpool
Mia Khan, University of Bristol
Aaron Winter, University of East London
Alan Boyle, University of Liverpool
Andy Buckley, University of Glasgow
Jamie Brown, University College London
Marco Hauptmeier, Cardiff University
Christopher Phillips, University of Huddersfield
Prof Dennis Leech, University of Warwick (retd., UCU branch pensions officer)
Prof Arnab Bhattacharjee, Heriot-Watt University
Paul Savage, University of St Andrews
Liam Clegg, University of York
Jonathan Marsh, Cardiff University
Matthew Malek, University of Sheffield (UCU branch pensions officer)
Andrew Waddie, Heriot-Watt University
Prof Kristian Lasslett, Ulster University
Prof Mahesan Niranjan, University of Southampton
Nicola Green, Newcastle University
Saira Weiner, Liverpool John Moores University
Jeremy Green, University of Cambridge
Isabel Stockton, University of Bristol
Prof Ruth Aylett, Heriot-Watt University (UCU branch committee member)
Fiona Lauckner, Open University
Aggie Hirst, King’s College London
Hans van de Koot, University College London
Jennifer Orr, Newcastle University
Arshad Isakjee, University of Liverpool
Andrzej Zieleniec, Keele University (UCU representative)
Wendy Bottero, University of Manchester
Prof Anson Mackay, University College London
Wim Degruyter, Cardiff University
Prof Greg Michaelson, Heriot-Watt University (UCU branch committee member)
Colin Bannard, University of Liverpool
Renaud Morieux, University of Cambridge
N Paul M Kuin, University College London
Hugues Azérad, University of Cambridge
Sadie Lawty, University of Liverpool
Prof Nicola Countouris, University College London
J. Reilly, Ulster University
Adam Dennett, University College London
Alison Cameron, Bangor University
Klaus Abels, University College London
Luke Fenton-Glynn, University College London
Vanessa May, University of Manchester
Prof Debbie Foster, Cardiff University
Catherine Sebastian, Royal Holloway University of London
Rebecca Lewis, City, University of London (UCU branch president)
Sam Ud-din, Secretary LM&D NEU (NUT Section)
Prof Sarah Colvin, University of Cambridge
Prof Narender Ramnani, Royal Holloway, University of London
Jann Matlock, University College London
Prof Andrew Thacker, Nottingham Trent University
Helen Thorpe, Sheffield
Stephen Bates, University of Birmingham
Ronald Haynes, University of Cambridge
Dale Moulding, University College London
Joan Allen, Newcastle University
Sunil Banga, Lancaster University (UCU branch pensions officer)
Prof David Adger, Queen Mary University of London
Ryan McKay, Royal Holloway, University of London
Andy Clark, Newcastle University
Rowan Tomlinson, University of Bristol
Karen Dwyer, University College London
Geoffrey Poole, Newcastle University
Caroline Edwards, Birkbeck, University of London
F Moore, Homerton College, University of Cambridge
Majid Khosravinik, Newcastle University
Branko Latinkic, Cardiff University
Isabel Davis, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Imogen Tyler, Lancaster university
Colin Brown, Newcastle University
Gilberto Teobaldi, University of Liverpool
Simon Peeters, University of Sussex
Alison Higgs, Open University
Stephen O’Sullivan, Loughborough University
Patience Schell, University of Aberdeen
Lisa Foran, Newcastle University
Brian McNeil, University of Strathclyde
Ian Ellis, Dundee University (UCU branch secretary)
Gabriella Alberti, University of Leeds (UCU branch equality officer)
Prof Lúcia Nagib, University of Reading
Prof Elaine Sharland, University of Sussex
Athina K, Leicester
Morag Lewis, King’s College London
Elizabeth Savage, Institute of English Studies
Prof Alex Lascarides, University of Edinburgh
Alex Hughes, Newcastle University
Damron Macleod, University College London
James Cranch, University of Sheffield
Prof Alan Simpson, City, University of London
Yorgos Karagiannakis, University of Sussex
David Huyssen, University of York
David Hill, University of Liverpool
Prof David Howard, Newcastle University
Nick Thoburn, University of Manchester
Steffan Blayney, University of Sussex
Adam Thuraisingam, Archaeological Services, University of Leicester
Christophe Gagne, University of Cambridge
Samuel Janes, Christ’s College, Cambridge (UCU branch vice president)
Caroline Wright, University of Bristol
Bijan Parsia, University of Manchester
Natalie Zacek, niversity of Manchester
Waseem Yaqoob, University of Cambridge (UCU branch secretary)
Prof Cynthia Graham, University of Southampton
Dan Ozarow, Middlesex University (UCU branch vice chair)
Prof Mike Wright, Lancaster University
Cathy Shutt, University of Sussex
Ghada Khattab, Newcastle University
Manfredi La Manna, University of St Andrews
Prof Nicky Priaulx, Cardiff University
Marga Navarrete, University College London
Laurence Totelin, Cardiff University
Prof Christine Lane, University of Cambridge
Prof Andrew Colman, University of Leicester
Hannah Murray, King’s College London
Ruth Windscheffel, City, University of London
Veronique Altglas, Queen’s University Belfast
Audrey Glover, Lancashire Hospital Education Service (NEU NUT section), (Lancaster Morecambe and district membership officer)
Philip Stephens, Durham University
Ilse A Ras, University of Leeds
Alex Beazleigh, The open University
Ebtihal Mahadeen, University of Edinburgh
Mark Berry, Royal Holloway, University of London
Marian Mayer, Bournemouth University (UCU chair Southern Region Committee)
Sam Wetherell, University of York
James Williams, University of York
Amanda Chisholm, Newcastle University
Prof Kay Schiller, University of Durham (UCU branch president)
Diego Millan Berdasco, Queen Mary University of London (UCU branch committee member)
Simon Parker, University of York
Karen Adler, University of Nottingham
Lauren Spinner
Phillip Archer, Newcastle University
Xiaofan Amy Li, University of Kent
Joao Florencio, University of Exeter (UCU branch equality officer)
Ann Singleton, University of Bristol
Prof Alastair Hudson, Strathclyde
Ana C. Dinerstein, University of Bath
Kate Hardy, University of Leeds
Peta Bulmer, University of Liverpool
James Whitehead, Liverpool John Moores University
Thomas Kador, University College London
Craig Haslop, University of Liverpool
Leonie Smith, University of Manchester
Prof Geoffrey Baker, Royal Holloway, University of London
Stephan Ehrig, Durham University
Richard D Pancost, University of Bristol
Carl Sheridan, University of Liverpool
Justin Pearce, University of Cambridge
Dot Reid, University of Glasgow
Prof Erica Carter, King’s College London
Jack Gibson, University of Nottingham
Bertram Düring, University of Sussex
Julie Wintrup, University of Southampton
Jeff Shields
Prof Mike Michael, University of Exeter
Prof Anne-marie Greene, University of Leicester
Patricia Prieto Blanco, University of Brighton
Julia Wirtz, University of Bristol
Martin Greeley, Institute of Development Studies
Prof Andrew Bowie, Royal Holloway (retd.)
Mordechai Katzman, University of Sheffield
Lee Jones, Queen Mary University of London (Alternative White Paper coauthor)
Prof Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck, University of London
Patrick Alexander, Oxford Brookes
Jessica Bird, University of Illinois at Chicago
Brigid Haines, Swansea University
Davidson Chademana, University of Dundee
Prof Anthony Constantinides, Imperial College (retd.)
Simon George, Royal Holloway, University of London
Raul Leal Ascencio, University College London
Nadarajah Manivannan, Brunel University
Brian Dangerfield, University of Bristol
David McAllister, Birkbeck, University of London
John James, (UCU Cymru Chair of Council)
Sabina Lawreniuk, Royal Holloway
Lydia Hayes, Cardiff University
Paul Lamb, University College London
Prof Clive Barnett, University of Exeter
Isla Forsyth, University of Nottingham
Maria Federica Moscati, University of Sussex
Prof Susan Michie, University College London
Janette Shiel, Imperial College London
David Hunter, Newcastle University
Rachel Oliver, University of Cambridge
Daniel Hind, University of Sheffield
Prof Katherine Brickell, Royal Holloway University of London
Neil Chadborn, University of Nottingham
Prof Wolfgang Maier, Cardiff University
Sujai Kumar, The University of Edinburgh
Claire Marris, City, University of London
Prof Laura Gowing, King’s College, London
Jonathan Ellis, Sheffield University
Rebecca Webb, University of Sussex
Lesley Catchpowle, University of Greenwich (UCU retirement rep)
Prof David Williams, University of Kent
Nayeli Urquiza, University of Kent
Sareen Galbraith, Leeds Beckett University
Anthony Wilson, University of Exeter
Jed Long, University of St Andrews
Robin Whelan, University of Liverpool
Richard Holland, Bangor University
Kevin Paulson, University of Hull
Joanna Wright, University of Northampton
Prof Gavin Foster, University of Southampton
Lenka Shipton, City, University of London
Prof Yusuf Sayed, University of Sussex
Mark Stephens, MSF member
Bronislaw Szerszynski, Lancaster University
Sara Heitlinger, Newcastle university
Richard Bradbury, Open University (UCU branch executive member)
Prof Diane Watt, University of Surrey
Luna Centifanti, University of Liverpool
Duncan Hay, University College London
Prof Rachel Cowgill, University of Huddersfield
Prof Carole Elliott, University of Roehampton
Gareth Brown, University of Leicester (UCU branch co-secretary)
Prof Tim Bayliss-Smith, University of Cambridge (retd.)
Prof Anna Grear, Cardiff University
Prof Bernardo Batiz-Lazo, Bangor University
Alex Dymock, Royal Holloway, University of Londom
Paul Norman, University of Leeds
Prof Joe Painter, Durham University
Annie Jones, Sheffield Hallam (UCU branch committee member)
Prof Ian A. McFarland, University of Cambridge
Prof Manuel Souto-Otero, Cardiff University
Prof Paul Ward, University of Huddersfield
John Drury, University of Sussex
Aidan Horner, University of York
Danny Millum, University of London (Branch secretary, University of London IWGB)
Meaghan Daly, University of Leeds
Prof Ben Ambridge, University of Liverpool
John David Rhodes, University of Cambridge
Ruth McAreavey, Newcastle University
Prof Stephen Shapiro, University of Warwick
Emma Mawdsley, University of Cambridge
Sarah McKeon, University of Hull
Prof Colin Bingle, Sheffield University
Zoë Groves, University of Leicester
Olwyn Alexander, Heriot-Watt University
George Tsoulas, University of York
Olga Luzon, Royal Holloway University of London
Daniel Rigden, University of Liverpool
Prof Cynthia Weber, University of Sussex
Juha Virtanen, University of Kent
Vikki Turbine, University of Glasgow
Daniela Romano, University College London
Tina Haux, University of Kent
Tina Haux, University of Kent
Y. Hancock, University of York
Carol Cody, City of Liverpool College (UCU NW women’s representative)
Outi Tuomainen, University College London
Alison Donnell, University of East Anglia
David Petts, Durham University
Tim Leonard, Lancaster University
Clare Hewitt, University College London
Tony Brown, University College London (UCU branch secretary)
Lloyd Bowen, Cardiff University
Phil Parkes, Cardiff University (UCU branch treasurer)
Christopher Burlinson, Jesus College, Cambridge
Nicole Lindstrom, University of York
Moira Dustin, University of Sussex
Kelly Johnston, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Georgina Turner, University of Liverpool
Prof Rosalind Galt, King’s College London
David Harvie, University of Leicester (UCU branch officer)
Prof Lene Rubinstein, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof David Mead, Univ. of East Anglia (former UCU branch vice president)
Prof Leon Lagnado, University of Sussex
Neil Arnold, University of Cambridge
Prof Sally R Munt, University of Sussex
Annie Maddison Warren, Cranfield University (UCU branch treasurer)
Marcus Waithe, University of Cambridge
Sarah May, University College London
Prof Malcolm von Schantz, University of Surrey
Simon Hewitt, University of Leeds
David Edward Rose, Newcastle University
Helen Gourlay, Brunel University
Romain Tartese, University of Manchester
Sinéad Agnew, University College London
Tim Allen, University of Liverpool
Deborah Brewis, University of Bath
Mario Orsi, University of the West of England
Prof Samantha Halliday, University of Huddersfield
Ricci Hannah, University College London
Christopher Harker, University College London
Johan Lissenberg, Cardiff University
Colin Veach, University of Hull
Emma Nicholson, University of Exeter
Helen Harvey, Cranfield University (UCU branch secretary)
Stephen Eglen, University of Cambridge
Adrian Streete, University of Glasgow
James Yardley, University College London
Karen Evans, University of Liverpool (UCU branch committee member)
Prof John Wildman, Newcastle University
Carsten Timmermann, University of Manchester
Giorgia Baldi, University of Sussex
Katherine Herborn, Newcastle University
Shanta Davie, Newcastle University
Prof Kathy Romer, University of Sussex
Mark Taylor-Batty, University of Leeds
Prof Paul Stewart, University of Strathclyde
Sharon Sweeney, University of Dundee (UCU branch president)
Josephine Wildman, Newcastle University
Prof Paul Stewart, University of Strathclyde
Irina Biktasheva, University of Liverpool
Prof Matthew Cobb, University of Manchester
Gina Barnes, SOAS University of London
Steve Cooke, University of Leicester
Christina Malathouni, University of Liverpool
Sarah Young, University College London
Morwenna Rogers, University of Exeter
Gillian Shorter, Ulster University
Samantha Jones, Cardiff University
Christopher Brown, University of Liverpool
Richard Craven, University of Leicester
Yasmeen Narayan, Birkbeck, University of London
Meera Sabaratnam, SOAS, University of London
Prof Sarah Holloway, Loughborough University
Tristram Wyatt, University of Oxford
Prof Jorge Diaz-Cintas, University College London
Michelle Huws-Thomas, Cardiff University
Charlotte Kemp, University of Edinburgh
Prof Robert Cook, University of Sussex
Stefanie Khoury, University of Liverpool
Lars Peter Laamann, SOAS, University of London
Sean Hughes, Lancaster University
Carolina Alves, University of Cambridge
Gilliane Williams, University of Brighton
Jared Ficklin, University of Liverpool
Tuan-Chi Hsieh, University College London
Prof Karin Lesnik-Oberstein, University of Reading
Prof Nadje Al-Ali, SOAS University of London
Gary Schwarz, SOAS University of London
Antonios Kaniadakis, Queen Mary University of London
Colin Cotter, Imperial College London
Prof Rob Beynon, University of Liverpool
Richard Mort, Lancaster University
Tessa Wright, Queen Mary University of London
Ana Claudia Suriani da Silva, University College London
Lois Lee, University of Kent
Prof Stephanie Bird, University College London
Joseph Ziminski, University of Sussex
Prof John Mathers, Newcastle University
Lucia Pradella, Kings College London
Neil Robbbie, SOAS, University of London
Prof Miles Ogborn, Queen Mary University of London
Helen Dixon, University of Sussex/IDS
Alice Breeveld, University College London
Prof Catherine Leglu, University of Reading
Liz Ellis, University of the Highlands and Islands
Arabella Stanger, University of Sussex
Alix Dietzel, University of Bristol
Robert Jubb, University of Reading
Gary Watmough, Edinburgh University
Tim Pringle, Soas, University of London
Michael Cox, Imperial College London
Diana Pinto, University of Leucester
J Simon Rofe, SOAS, University of London
Prof Engin Isin, Queen Mary University of London
David Butler, Newcastle University
Camilla Royle, King ‘s College London
Emma Dwyer, University of Leicester
Sana Murrani, University of Plymouth
James O’Leary, University College London
David Swanson, University of Manchester (UCU branch committee member)
Richard Finch, University of Liverpool
Isra Black, York Law School, The University of York
James Mittra, University of Edinburgh
Jeremy Toner, University of Leeds
Graham Collins, Newcastle University
Tom McDonald, University of Liverpool
Prof Elaine Chalus, University of Liverpool
Aidan Smith, Birkbeck, University of London
James McGinty, Imperial College London
Nithya Natarajan, Royal Holloway
Monish Bhatia, Birkbeck, University of London (UCU representative)
Tom Cornford, University of Essex (UCU returning officer)
Prof Nick Taylor, Heriot-Watt University
Alessandra Mezzadri, SOAS University of London
Soe Tjen Marching, SOAS University of London
Chris Clarkson, Queen Mary, University of London
Sarah Banks, Durham University
Jo Carruthers, Lancaster University
Craig Lind, University of Sussex
Carolyn Letts, Newcastle University
Rossella Ferrari, SOAS University of London
Christiana Gregoriou, University of Leeds
Alan Spencer, University College London
Ben Burbridge, University of Sussex
Prof Barbara Taylor, Queen Mary University of London
Grant Wright, Heriot Watt University
Prof Daniel Siemens, Newcastle University
Prof Raymond Dalgleish, University of Leicester
Alexia Yates, University of Manchester
Martina Balagovic, Newcastle University
Michael Talbot, University of Greenwich
Monica Azzolini, University of Edinburgh
Vanessa Beck, University of Bristol
Alexej Ulbricht, SOAS, University of London
Lori Allen, SOAS University of London
Nick Ashton, University of Manchester
Stuart Gilfillan, University of Edinburgh
Hannah Durkin, Newcastle University
Lauren Spinner, University of Kent
Jacqui Rodgers, Newcastle University
Pablo Ciocchini, University of Liverpool
Franziska Meyer, University of Nottingham
Hannah Dee, Aberystwyth University
Ãlvaro Martinez-Perez, University of Sheffield
Anke Hein, University of Oxford
Martha Prevezer, Queen Mary University of London
Phil Birch, University of Sussex
Prof Matthew Gandy, University of Cambridge
Marsha Smith, Nottingham Trent Uni
Prof Peter Stott, University of Exeter
Brendan Quinn, The Open University
Tim Hall, Senate House, University of London (UCU branch chair)
Leigh O’Mahony, Liverpool John Moores University
Alex Mangold, Aberystwyth University
Theodora Bryer, University College London Institute of Education (UCU branch committee member)
Hannah Bargawi, SOAS University of London
Annette Fisher, Institute of Development Studies, Uni of Sussex
Prof Timon Screech, SOAS, University of London
Dina Matar, SOAS University of London
Chris Bayes, Lancaster University
Martin Greenwood, University of Manchester
Sara Marzagora, SOAS University of London
Sandra Leaton Gray, University College London Institute Of Education
Gus Cameron, University of Bristol
Prof Alison Stenning, Newcastle University
Chris Jones, University of St Andrews
Kristin Surak, SOAS
Neve Gordon, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Rosie Cox, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Paul Kinnersley, Cardiff University
Richard J. White, Sheffield Hallam University
Amira Adel, University of Sussex
Prof Rachel Pain, Newcastle University
Mazal Oaknin, University College London
Gabor Gelleri, Aberystwyth University
John-Paul Latham, Imperial College London
Hannah Wilkinson, Keele University
Sarah Lewthwaite, University of Southampton
Prof Malcolm Pender, Strathclyde University
Jackie Grant, University of Sussex (UCU representative)
Bradley Ladewig, Imperial College London
Andrew Kirton, University of Liverpool
Prof Janet Boddy, University of Sussex
Matt Benwell, Newcastle University
Adolfo Sanchez Cuadrado, University College London
Prof Stephen Shennan, University College London
Danielle Lamb, University College London
Prof Steven French, University of Leeds (UCU branch committee member)
Rachel Crellin, University of Leicester
Prof Victoria Goddard, Goldsmiths University of London
John Hodrien, University of Leeds
Peter Wright, Imperial College London
Lewis MacKenzie, Durham. University
Gunvor Jonsson, University of Oxford (UCU department rep)
Prof Linda Davies, University of Manchester
Samantha Knapton, Newcastle University
Kirsten MacLeod, Newcastle University
Prof Jane Pollard, Newcastle University
Prof Ralph Darlington, University of Salford
Mary Harlow, University of Leicester
Paul McConnell, University of Sussex
Sara Charles, University of London
Prof Sally Kyd, University of Leicester
Hussein Omar, Pembroke College, University of Oxford
Prof Winifred Davies, Aberystwyth University (retd.)
Martin Sayers, Imperial College London
Becca Lovell, University of Exeter
Mike Dolton, Royal Holloway
Prof Jane Holgate, University of Leeds
Carol Calvert, Open University
Martin Fry, University College London
Varyl Thorndycraft, Royal Holloway University of London
Douglas Hamilton, Sheffield Hallam University
Prof Deborah Cameron, Oxford University
Francine Morris, University of Salford
Dave Langstaff, Aberystwyth University
Prof Friederike Lüpke, SOAS
Mark Osborne, (Senior Lecturer)
John Claridge, University of Liverpool
Jenny Lloyd, University of Bristol
Samia Bano, SOAS, University of London
Pura Ariza, Manchester Metropolitan (UCU branch equality officer)
Katie Willis, Royal Holloway, University of London
Mark Osborne, University of Sussex
Nick Efford, University of Leeds
Prof Christopher Cramer, SOAS, University of London
Joseph Choonara, King’s College London
Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, University of Southampton
Fabian Frenzel, University of Leicester
Magnus Ramage, The Open University
Pasquale Scaramozzino, SOAS University of London
Peter Flügel, SOAS
Ross Balzaretti, University of Nottingham
Antony Coombs, University of Sussex
Federico M. Federici, University College London
Sebastian Gaigg, City, University of London
Prof Nadia Berthouze, University College London
J. T. Wolfenden, Durham University
Miranda Armstrong, University of Bath
Catherine Oakley, University of Leeds
David Scott, The Open University (UCU branch chair)
elaine winship, Newcastle University
Karen Wells, Birkbeck, University of London
Luc Berthouze, University of Sussex
Prof Jamie Angus, Salford
Jonathan Fryer, SOAS, University of London
Lucie Middlemiss, University of Leeds
Margherita Grazioli, University of Leicester
Prof Carl Abbott, University of Salford
Shelley Cobb, University of Southampton (UCU department rep)
Mary Turner, University of Huddersfield
David Andrew, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Jill Rubery, University of Manchester
Debbie Dewar, University of Glasgow
Heike Bauer, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Chris Jones, Liverpool John Moores University (retd.)
Chris Douce, The Open University
Josep, Newcastle University
Prof Katharine Rockett, University of Essex
Prof David Treece, King’s College London
Janet Hardy, Aberystwyth University
Prof Ken Peattie, Cardiff University
Mark Laffey, SOAS
Justin Sturge, University of Hull
Katherine Schofield, King’s College London
Grazia Ingravalle, Brunel University London
Chloe Wallace, University of Leeds
Macarena Jiménez Naranjo, University College London
Ayesha Siddiqi, Royal Holloway University of London
Michael Sanders, University of Manchester
Allan J. Sim, University of Aberdeen (UCU health and safety rep)
Patrick Rosenkranz, Newcastle University
Prof Anne Kerr, University of Leeds
Peter Fletcher, University of Essex
Prof Reinhard Bachmann, SOAS, University of London
Prof Kate Chedgzoy, Newcastle University
Anna Bilous, SOAS, University of London
Liz Oakley-Brown, Lancaster University (UCU department rep)
Lukas Hardt, University of Leeeds
Chloe Nast, Goldsmiths University of London
Jane Lloyd, Liverpool University
Catharine Cross, University of St Andrews
Philip Hancock, University of Essex
Sharon Bolton, University of Essex
Michele Pierson, King’s College London
Prof Florence Myles, University of Essex
Prof Richard Dyer, King’s College London / St Andrews
Stefan Skrimshire, University of Leeds
Mitesh Patel, Imperial College London
Prof Robert Hollands, Newcastle University
Matt O’Donnell, University of Bristol
Danielle Matthews, University of Sheffield
Rosie Harman, University College London
David Price, Aberystwyth University
Jennifer Neville, Royal Holloway, University of London
Tom White, University of Oxford
Huw Thomas, University of Bristol
Prof Chris Berry, King’s College London
Jeff Scheible, King’s College London
Prof Ann Blandford, University College London
Mark Betz, King’s College London
Megan Freeth, University of Sheffield
Sandi Dheensa, Cardiff University
Prof Andrew Samuels, University of Essex
Rael Dawtry, University of Essex
Alex Challis, Queen Mary University of London
Lexa Olivera-Smith, University of Essex
Felia allum, University of Bath
Vincenzo Vergiani, University of Cambridge
Richie Nimmo, University of Manchester
Prof Vieri Samek-Lodovici, University College London
Prof Peter Dews, University of Essex
Prof Katy Gardner, London School of Economics
Sara L. Uckelman, Durham University
Prof Ralph Fevre, Cardiff University
Martin Quirke, University of Stirling
Ruth Craggs, King’s College London
Prof Harriet Hawkins, Royal Holloway University of London
Prof Stefan Elbe, University of Sussex
Prof Dean Wilson, University of Sussex
Prof Nancy Kula, University of Essex
Andrew Moor, Manchester Metropolitan University
Prof Tim Lang, City, University of London
E. Hywel Evans, University of Plymouth
Kasia Banas, University of Edinburgh
William Astle, University of Cambridge
Claire Colomb, University College London
Magnus Hagdorn, University of Edinburgh
Prof Jon Crowcroft, University of Cambridge
Prof Christopher Hary, Lancaster University
Navtej Purewal, SOAS University of London
Joanne Walker, Aberystwyth University
Seb Franklin, King’s College London
Rhoda Ballinger, Cardiff University
Umit Yildiz, Edge Hill University
Louis Bayman, University of Southampton
Graham Hole, University of Sussex
Alex Thomas, University of edinburgh
Prof Rajinder Dudrah, Birmingham City University
Amy Davis, University of Hull
Rune Nyrup, University of Cambridge
Prof Patrick Bonnett, Newcastle University
Sally Barlow, City, university of London
Vikki Boliver, Durham University
Prof Catherine Grant, Birkbeck, University of London
Silke Mentchen, University of Cambridge
Cassandra Ulph, Bishop Grosseteste University
Alison Barty, SOAS, University of London
Prof Peter Muchlinski, SOAS, University of London (retd.)
Prof Dame Marina Warner, Birkbeck College, University of London
Thomas Marois, SOAS, University of London
Darryn Mitussis, Queen Mary University of London (UCU branch chair)
Karen Brennan, University of Essex
Joseph Baxter, University of Nottingham
Eda Ulus, University of Leicester
Silke Mentchen, University of Cambridge
Peter King, Queen Mary University of London
Lucy Cheke, University of Cambridge
Prof John Tomaney, University College London
Sally Little, Nottingham Trent University
Prof Patrick Wright, King’s College London
Isabela Butnar, University College London
Clare Birchall, King’s College London
Kyla Sankey, Queen Mary University of London
Rachel Woodward, Newcastle University
Prof Stephanie Dennison, University of Leeds
Belén Vidal, King’s College London
Prof Irene Ng, University of Warwick
Martin Cartwright, City, University of London
Prof Tom Freeman, Cardiff University
Rebecca Harrison, University of Glasgow
Claudia Baldoli, Newcastle University
Prof Robert Fitzgerald, Royal Holloway, University of London
John Yandell, University College London Institute of Education
Prof Fabrice Pierron, University of Southampton
Prunella Lunberg, Queen Mary, University of London
Lydia Morgan, University of Birmingham
Tim Francis, University of Bath
Craig Purshouse, University of Liverpool
KJ Hollis, independent academic
Christine Geraghty, Glasgow Unversity
Ben Spatz, University of Huddersfield
Geraldine Horan, University College London
Prof Julian Weiss, King’s College London
James Hampshire, University of Sussex
Jane Alexander, University of Edinburgh
Luke Robinson, University of Sussex
Prof Diane Richardson, Newcastle University
Mark Hagen, University of Bristol
Phillip Horky, Durham University
Prof Mark Hindmarsh, University of Sussex
Cecile Chevalier, University of Sussex
George Parisis, University of Sussex
Alberto Mira, Oxford Brookes University
Sabine Sharp, University of Manchester (Organisational coordinator, SALC TA committee)
Catherine Crawford, University of Essex (UCU branch president)
Alejandro Bolaños, University College London
Cylcia Bolibaugh, University of York
Asha Akram, Sheffield University
Prof Laleh Khalili, SOAS, University of London
Prof Tony Dundon, Work & Equalities Institute, University of Manchester
Jan Robbery, Newcastle University
Ian Butler, University of Edinburgh
Samuel Strong, University College London
Prof David Whyte, University of Liverpool
Renginee G. Pillay, University of Essex
Jonathan Benson, University of Sheffield (UCU branch vice president)
David Waterhouse, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Cristina Massaccesi, University College London
Tom Smulders, Newcastle University
Derek Bryce, University of Strathclyde
Prof Simon Szreter, University of Cambridge
Niamh Moore, University of Edinburgh
Aisling O’Beirn, Ulster University
Alistair Ford, Newcastle University
Sreya Banerjea, SOAS, University of London
Julie Greensmith, University of Nottingham
David Milodowski, University of Edinburgh
Tasia Scrutton, University of Leeds
Kenneth MacDonald, University of Edinburgh
Prof Alan Read, King’s College London
Lisa Sampson, University College London
Stefanos, University of Manchester
Prof Loredana Polezzi, Cardiff University
Alison Mohr, University of Nottingham
Ben Highmore, University of Sussex
Malcolm Edwards, Birkbeck University of London
Sharmishta Chatterjee Banerjee, Newcastle University Business School
Jim Tyson, University College London
Rebecca Fraser, University of East Anglia
Rose Holyoak, University of Winchester
Luisa Martí, Queen Mary University of London
Dilly Meyer, University of Essex (UCU branch committee member)
Toby Andrew, Imperial College London
Ben Ware, King’s College London
George Legg, King’s College London
Berenice Guyot-Rechard, King’s College London
Kate Howland, University of Sussex
Stephe Harrop, Liverpool Hope University
Paul Hurley, University of Southampton
Rob Byrne, University of Sussex
Andy Harvey, Swansea University (UCU branch committee)
Isabel Tavora, University of Manchester
Prof Klaus Schaeck, University of Bristol
Syed Ali Raza Zaidi, University of Leeds
Prof Colin Samson, University of Essex
Eva Nanopoulos, Queen Mary, University of London
Emma Blyth, Imperial College London
Ray Corrigan, The Open University
Prof Wouter Poortinga, Cardiff University
Richard Mcewan, Tower Hamlets College (UCU FE National Negotiator)
Prof Peter Jorgensen, Newcastle University
Vanja Hamzić, SOAS University of London
Prof Nicholas Harrison, King’s College London
Tim Drew, Dundee University
Jeffery R Webber, Queen Mary University of London
Martin weinel, Cardiff University
Prof Iwan Rhys Morus, Aberystwyth University
Prof Nicky Priaulx, Cardiff University
Dirk vom Lehn, King’s College London
Prof Helen Hanson, University of Exeter
Robert Schmidt, University of Sheffield
Marat Shterin, King’s College London
Carlotta Ferrara degli Uberti, University College London
Prof Emma Tomalin, University of Leeds
Tim Ratcliffe, University of Bath
Paul Newbury, University of Sussex
Rachel Walls, University of Leeds
Paul Anderson, Queen Mary University of London
Stewart Smyth, University of Sheffield
Matthias Landgraf, University of Cambridge
Prof Berthold Lausen, University of Essex
Vik Loveday, Goldsmiths, University of London
Jason Glynos, University of Essex
Stephanie Petrie, University of Liverpool
Daniel Elstein, University of Leeds
Prof Roberta Mock, University of Plymouth
Prof Sarah Street, University of Bristol
Prof Karin Wahl-Jorgensen, Cardiff University
Prof Georgina Born, University of Oxford
Tom Cameron, University of Essex
Rick Saull, Queen Mary, University of London
Sandra Moog, University of Essex
Alice Samson, University of Leicester
Alexandra Lamont, Keele University
Linda Robson, Open University
Ealasaid Munro, University of Stirling
Rhian Keyse, University of Exeter (UCU branch anti)-(casualisation officer)
Prof Enrico Palandri, University College London
Andrew Horne, University of Sheffield
Eamonn Mallon, University of Leicester
Catrin Huber, Newcastle University
Nariman Massoumi, University of Bristol
Frances Durkin, University of Birmingham
Annja Neumann, University of Cambridge
Jenny Campbell, Newcastle University
Helge Gillmeister, University of Essex
Nita Sanghera, Bournville College Campus (NEC Black Members Representative)
Stuart K Watson, University of St Andrews
Siân Harris, University of Bristol
Phoebe C. Linton, University of Edinburgh
Jonathan Stokl, King’s College London
Prof Chris Bundy, Cardiff University
Prof Manuel Barcia, University of Leeds
Alison Smith, University of Liverpool
Graham Kirkwood, Newcastle University
Miceal Brendan McNulty, Open University.
Malte Laub, King’s College London
Karen Richmond, University of Dundee
Prof Matthias Röhrig Assunção, University of Essex
Ben Mechen, University College London
Ethan Hack, Newcastle University
Elizabeth Elliott, University of Aberdeen
Sally Brown, Edinburgh Napier University
Rebecca Williams, University of Exeter
Cagri Yalkin, University of Birmingham
Simon Stevens, University of Sheffield
Prof Pietro Spanu, Imperial College London
Prof Susanne Kord, University College London
Erika Balsom, King’s College London
Ruth Mather, University of Exeter
El Spaeth, The University of Glasgow
Peter Edward, Newcastle University Business School
Julian Germann, University of Sussex
Prof Richard Ashcroft, Queen Mary University of London
Gail Edwards, Newcastle University
Tiago M. Alves, Cardiff University
Thomas Callan-Riley, Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London
Peter Zusi, University College London
Mike Bithell, University of Cambridge
Jimmy Hay, University of Bristol
Hazel Davey, Aberystwyth University
Jimmy Hay, University of Bristol
Lucy Ryan, University of Salford
Sam Clark, Lancaster university
Prof Frederic Chaume, University College London
Dunja Fehimović, Newcastle University
Kate Ash-Irisarri, University of Edinburgh
Adam Ganz, Royal Holloway University of London
Daragh O’Reilly, University of Sheffield
Maria-Novella Mercuri-Rosta, University College London
Prof Giana Eckhardt, Royal Holloway University of London
Owen Holland, Jesus College, University of Oxford
Carina Hibberd, University of Stirling
Aris Mousoutzanis, University of Brighton
Ben Noble, University College London
Achim Treumann, Newcastle University
Anna P. Judson, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Szonya Durant, Royal Holloway, University of London
Lily Kahn, University College London
John McTague, University of Bristol
Catherine Johnson, University of Nottingham
David Marshall, University of York
Mark Gavillet, Newcastle University
Mairead Kirby, Newcastle University
Emma Wadsworth, Cardiff University
Zibiah Alfred Loakthar, University of Essex
Prof Ziad Elmarsafy, King’s College London
Mechthild Fend, University College London
Prof Jane Cowan, University of Sussex
Tom Wilkinson, The Warburg Institute
Prof Rosaline Barbour (retd.)
Laurence Breeze, Open University
Prof Christine Ferguson, University of Stirling
Heather Logue, University of Leeds
Prof Rosaline Barbour, The Open University (retd).
Sana Mir, Middlesex University
Prof Jonathan Halliwell, Imperial College
Emma Briant, University of Essex
Prof Joan Taylor, King’s College London
Tina Gharavi, Newcastle University
Natasha Tanna, Christ’s College, University of Cambridge
Prof Eric Gordy, University College London
Peter Agocs, University College London
Prof Judith Suissa, University College London Institute of Education
Nik Reeves-McLaren, University of Sheffield
Ned Richardson-Little, University of Exeter
Christina Parte, University College London
Pete Falconer, University of Bristol
Prof Jennifer Gabrys, Goldsmiths, University of London
Tim Parkinson, University of Sheffield
Prof Sonia Massai, King’s College London
Laura Sangha, University of Exeter
Finola Kerrigan, University of Birmingham
Prof Richard Fardon, SOAS University of London
Prof Debbie Epstein, Roehampton
Rachel Moseley, University of Warwick
Lee Spinks, Edinburgh University
Jane Hindley, University of Essex
Francois Guesnet, University College London
Angela Piccini, University of Bristol
Florian Fusseis, University of Edinburgh
Barbara Guidarelli, Newcastle University
Vijay Tymms, Imperial College London
Richard Mortier, University of Cambridge
Emma Williams, University of Surrey
Julia Waters, University of Reading
Tom Saunders, The Open Univeristy
Prof Rosalind Edwards, University of Southampton
Prof Gawen Jenkin, University of Leicester
Prof Ann Light, University of Sussex
Prof Gawen Jenkin, University of Leicester
Clare Butler, Newcastle University
Prof Hilary Robinson, Loughborough University
Caroline Holland, The Open University
Jane Coles, University College London Institute of Education
Stefano Bertea, University of Leicester
Prof Michael Berkowitz, University College London
David Rossati, University of Salford
Bex Lewis, Manchester Metropolitan University
Hannah Hamad, Cardiff University
Prof Maria Piacentini, Lancaster University
Eleni Markou, University College London
Clara Bradbury-Rance, King’s College London
Gerhard Schnyder, Loughborough University London
Lucy Munro, King’s College London
Prof Lee Grieveson, University College London
Mark Bould, University of the West of England
Alan MacDonald, Univeristy of Dundee
Lucy Bennett, Cardiff University
Nick Parsons, Cardiff University
Hanna Kienzler, King’s College London
Jessica Ferm, University College London Bartlett School of Planning
Catherine Walsh, Cardiff University
Greg Tyler, University of Edinburgh
Michael Buehler, School of Oriental and African Studies
Katherine Swancutt, King’s College London
Hanna Kienzler, King’s College London
Burce Celik, Loughborough University London
Elena Pagani, Bristol University
Jacqueline Maingard, University of Bristol
Diego Flores-Jaime, University College London
Liz Elkind, University of Edinburgh (retd.)
Uilleam Blacker, University College London
Laura Kelley, University of Exeter
Christopher Timms, University of Essex
Pam Birtill, University of Leeds
Alison Lane, University of Durham
Jenny Watts, EF Academy
Stuart Arnot, Newcastle University
Philippa Hewett, SOAS, University of London
Prof John Gough, Aberystwyth Uninversity
Prof Tony Prosser, University of Bristol
Robert Fay, University of Liverpool
Emma france, University of Stirling
Helle Abelvik-Lawson, Essex University
Prof Richard Saundry, University of Plymouth
Helen Wheatley, University of Warwick
Yaiza Hernández Velázquez, Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts London
Tim Colbourn, University College London
Paul O’Connell, SOAS, University of London
Helen Cornish, Goldsmiths, University of London
Alex Clayton, University of Bristol
Prof Jeremy Grimshaw, University of Ottawa (formerly University of Aberdeen)
Angelos Koutsourakis, University of Leeds
Lucy Pearson, Newcastle University
Ian Cook et al, University of Exeter
David Farrier, University of Edinburgh
Lorna Jowett, University of Northampton
Marion Winters, Heriot-Watt University (UCU branch membership officer)
David Martin, University of Dundee
Keith Buckman, Royal Holloway, University of London
Keishia Taylor, University College London
Prof Kevin Donnelly, University of Southampton
Jessica Fure, University of Essex
Prof Peter Knight, University of Manchester
Jessica Stacey, University of Oxford
Mayur Suresh, SOAS, University of London
J Bailey-Noblett, University of Strathclyde
Sylvie Lomer, University of Manchester
Mehmet Ali Dikerdem, Middlesex University (UCU branch committee member)
Adam Unwin, University College London
Victoria Grace Walden, University of Sussex
Tom Brown, King’s college London
Natasha Simonova, University of Oxford
Prof Cahal McLaughlin, Queen’s University Belfast
Eleanor Rycroft, University of Bristol
Rebecca Atkinson, University of Sussex
Prof Burkhard Schafer, University of Edinburgh
J. G. Finlayson, University of Sussex
Terry McGenity, University of Essex
Matthew Graham, University of Dundee
Dr. Neil Mac Parthaláin, Prifysgol Aberystwyth University
Jen Phipps, Aberystwyth University
Emma Francis, University of Warwick
Clémentine Force-Izzard, University of Exeter
Ivan Scales, University of Cambridge
Prof Laura Salisbury, University of Exeter
Andreas Wittel, Nottingham Trent University
Kristian Moen, University of Bristol
Prof Helen Gunter, University of Manchester
Roser Beneito-Montagut, Cardiff University
Patricia Oliart, Newcastle University
Sarah Miller-Davenport, University of Sheffield
Angharad Shaw, Aberystwyth University
Ildiko Kemenes, University of Sussex
George Roberts, University of Cambridge
Anthony Sullivan, UAL – London College of Fashion
Benjamin Bland, Royal Holloway, University of London
Imran Jamal, SOAS, University of London
Prof David Thwaites, Newcastle University
Ralf Schmid, University of Leicester
Joshua Jowitt, Newcastle University
Matt Davies, Newcastle University
Emily Jones, University of Essex
Martin Reed, University of Essex
William Brown, University of Roehampton, London
Naomi Salmon, Aberystwyth University
Annie Ring, University College London
Steve Walker, The Open University
Ursula Byrne, Aberystwyth University
Iain Robert Smith, King’s College London
Pat Parslow, University of Reading
Prof Maria Lauret, University of Sussex
James Cruise, Heriot Watt University
Prof Tom Crick, Swansea University
Prof Peter Midmore, Aberystwyth University
Prof Francis Jones, Newcastle University
Sarah Wise, University College London
George Kokkinidis, University of Leicester
Isaac Marrero Guillamon, Goldsmiths, University of London
Charlotte Jones, Aberystwyth University
Prof Penny Fielding, University of Edinburgh
Chris North, Cardiff University
Prof Caroline Austin, Newcastle University
Prof Nikolay Zenkin, Newcastle University
Prof Lucie Clapp, University College London
Ciaran Jones, University of Edinburgh
Prof Bill Brewer, King’s College London
Matthew Donoghue, University of Oxford
Jonathan Rae, University College London
Jess Phillips, Cardiff University
Prof Sonu Shamdasani, University College London
Prof Upamanyu Pablo Mukherjee, Warwick University
Davide Crivelli, Cardiff University
Kyle Grayson, Newcastle University
Fernando Russo Abegao, Newcastle University
Mina Davies Morel, Aberystwyth University
Prof Phillipp Schofield, Aberystwyth University
Jemima Short, Newcastle University
Prof Oliver Williams, Cardiff University
Julie Gammon, University of Southampton
Prof Gilbert Achcar, SOAS, University of London
Lizzie Swarbrick, University of Edinburgh
Ruth Lang, University of the Arts London
Troy Lavers, University of Leicester
Jeannie Holstein, University of Nottingham
Ruth Patrick, University of Liverpool
Jennifer Lorch, University of Warwick
Prof Roger Boyle, University of Leeds (retd.)
Dagmar Paulus, University College London
Andrea Rehberg, Newcastle University
Prof Roger Maull, University of Surrey
Andrew Asibong, Birkbeck, University of London
Paul Gardner, University of St Andrews
Daniel Nucinkis, Imperial College London
João Quinta da Fonseca, The University of Manchester
Lynn Hancock, University of Liverpool
Prof Jenny Edkins, Aberystwyth University
Liran Morav, University of Cambridge
Prof Jennifer Jenkins, University of Southampton
Prof Gennady Mishuris, Aberystwyth University
Mika Peck, University of Sussex
Kalpana Wilson, Birkbeck, University of London
Ake Fagereng, Cardiff University
Prof Gavin Walker, University of Nottingham
Prof Michael Edwards, University College London (retd.)
Nicola McCartney, University of Edinburgh
Prof Jonathan Morris, Cardiff University
Helen Beer, University College London
Prof Julie Harris, University of St. Andrews
Simon Booth, University of Stirling
Prof Javed Majeed, King’s College London
Frédéric Bosché, Heriot-Watt University
Ellen clarke, University of leeds
Ian Pace, City, University of London
Kirk Plangger, King’s College London
Jill Clark, Newcastle University
Anna Waldstein, University of Kent
Robert Gutsche Jr, Lancaster University
Prof Catherine Waters, University of Kent
Marc Conrad, University of Bedfordshire
Prof Abby Day, Goldsmiths, University of London
Florian Zollmann, Newcastle University
Vesna Perisic, University of Southampton
Trev Broughton, University of York
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, University College London
Lara Shalson, King’s College London
Thomas H Zunder, Newcastle University
Michael Williams, University of Southampton
Michael McGarvey, Imperial College London (UCU branch president)
Giordano Scarciotti, Imperial College London
Prof. Peter L Patrick, University of Essex (UCU branch vice president)
Stefanie Kappler, Durham University
Paola Falugi, Imperial college London
Angela Lees, University of Nottingham
Prof David Mond, University of Warwick
Tony Brookes, University College London
Prof Brita Nucinkis, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Willia West, University of Chester
Steven Watson, University of Cambridge
Margaret Quirk, Aberystwyth University
Gavin Clowry, Newcastle University
Anna Krzywoszynska, University of Sheffield
Prof Kathryn Hollingsworth, Newcastle University
Benjamin Thomas White, University of Glasgow
Andrew Filmer, Aberystwyth University
Pauline Nelson, University of Manchester
Olesya Khromeychuk, University of East Anglia
Michael Gray, Newcastle University
Christopher Hamerton, University of Southampton
Georgina Holden, The Open University
Simona Vittorini, SOAS, University of London
Jack Miller, University of Oxford
John Faulkner, SOAS, University of London
Jane Elliott, King’s College London (UCU department rep)
Katrin Schreiter, King’s College London
Prof Sue Harris, Queen Mary University of London
Fujiko Kobayashi, SOAS, University of London
Lucy Bastin, Aston University
Emile Devereaux, University of Sussex
Hilary Hinds, Lancaster University
Hannah Clarke, Aberystwyth University
Matthew Phillips, Aberystwyth University
Jamie Wilkinson, Imperial Colkege London
Ben Collinson, Imperial College London
Martin Corley, University of Edinburgh
Sue Pinnick, University of Sussex
Prof Martin Embley, Newcastle University
Prof William Proctor Williams, Northern Illinois University
Xun Zhou, the Univeristy of Essex
Isabelle Hertner, King’s College London
Matias Ramirez, University of Sussex
Annemarie Piso, Leeds Beckett University
Prof Keith Ansell-Pearson, University of Warwick
Zahid Durrani, Imperial College London
Jesper Hansen, University College London
Prof Hans van Wees, University College London
Jessica Rapson, King’s College London
Jane Nolan, University of Nottingham
Daniel Smith, King’s College London
Emma Kennedy, Queen Mary University of London
Maria Kyriakidou, Cardiff University
Gary Roberts, University of Dundee
Madeline Hallewell, University of Nottingham
Kamelia Boodhoo, Newcastle University
Seth Graham, University College London
Fred Tata, University of Leicester
Amy Staniforth, Aberystwyth University
Tom Ridge, University of Leicester
Loveday Hodson, University of Leicester
Grant Denkinson, University of Leicester
Stefanie Ortmann, University of Sussex
Rosi Smith, University of Nottingham (UCU branch equalities officer)
Prof Susan Page, University of Leicester
Simon Rodway, Aberystwyth University
Prof Garry Whannel, University of Bedfordshire (retd.)
Prof Karen Boyle, University of Strathclyde
Robert Hammond, University of Leicester
Martine van Ittersum, University of Dundee
Heike Schaumberg, University of Reading
Helen Kingstone, University of Glasgow
Marie Busfield, Aberystwyth University
Prof Alexandra Shepard, University of Glasgow
Jonas Rademacker, University of Bristol
Prof John E. Lees, University of Leicester
Catherine Bates, University of Leeds
Tanja Mueller, University of Manchester
Alan Morris, University of Strathclyde
Brad Manktelow, University of Leicester
Prof Mark J Whitehead, Aberystwyth University
Garrick Taylor, University of Oxford (UCU branch president)
Mark Leopold, University of Sussex
Sam Wolfe, University of Oxford
Richard Strange, University of Essex
Eric Bowers, The Open University
Andrew Law, Newcastle University
John Moore, Newman University, Birmingham
Ros Temple, University of Oxford
Pete Duncan, University College London School of Slavonic and East European Studies
David Clancy, Lancaster University
Prof Clare Bambra, Newcastle University
Prof Jonathan Erichsen, Cardiff University
Melani Schroeter, University of Reading
Theresa Federici, Cardiff University
Prof Julia Strauss, SOAS University of London
Bob Burns, SOAS, University of London
Lauren Hall-Lew, University of Edinburgh
Rosemary Golding, The Open University
Cherie Judge, University of liverpool
Alex Moseley, University of Leicester
Rachel Kerr, University of Sussex
Gerard McCann, University of York
Laura Howe, University of Bristol
And Rosta, University of Central Lancashire (UCU branch secretary)
Chinmay Sharma, SOAS University of London
Jennie Gamlin, University College London
Gair Dunlop, DJCAD, University of Dundee
David Edwards, University of Leicester
Kathryn Yusoff, Queen Mary University of London
Laura Rival, University of Oxford
Alisa Lebow, University of Sussex
Job van der Schalk, Cardiff University
Richard Shillcock, University of Edinburgh
Prof Jeremy Tanner, University College London
Shelley Lees, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Emma Sandon, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Geoff King, Brunel University London
Olivia Hamlyn, University of Leicester
Alexandra Kingston-Reese, University of York
Samuel Raybone, University of Leicester
J Willis, University College London
Jefferson Virgílio, University of Lisbon
Dr Rosa Andújar, King’s College London
Prof Phil Shaw, University of Leicester
Prof Marc Bühner, Cardiff University
Frank Neumann, University of Leicester
Christopher Stocker, University of Leicester
Prof Mark Schaffer, Heriot-Watt University
Rachel Harris, SOAS, University of London
Sue Clarke, Aberystwyth University
Lucie Glasheen, Queen Mary University of London
Stephen Nand-Lal, University of Liverpool
Helene Neveu Kringelbach, University College London
Matthew Bashton, Newcastle University
Patrick Greenough, University of St Andrews
Olga bailey, Nottingham Trent University
Kamila Kingstone, University of Cambridge
Daniela La Penna, Reading University
Peter Griffin, University of Cambridge
Brenda Dunn, University of Dundee
Julienne Obadia, University of Cambridge
Chris Raddats, University of Liverpool
Prof Anna Snaith, King’s College London
Steven, Aberystwyth University
Ian Fryett, Cardiff University
John Parrington, University of Oxford (UCU department rep)
Travis Proulx, Cardiff University
Sandra Wachter, University of Oxford
Prof Chris Lintott, University of Oxford
Geoff Williams, University College London
Prof James Thomas, University College London
Brian Harding, Queen Mary, University of London
Prof Karma Nabulsi, Oxford University
Marieke Riethof, University of Liverpool
Imogen Bellwood-Howard, Institute of Development Studies
Daniela Colomo, Faculty of Classics, University of Oxford
Natalia Paszkiewicz, University of Bath
Julia Nicholls, King’s College London
Sofia Gameiro, Cardiff University, School of Psychology
Prof Alexander Schekochihin, University of Oxford
Julie Brett, Newcastle University
Prof Katrin Kohl, University of Oxford
Elena Gorfinkel, King’s College London
Prof Sean O’Brien, Newcastle University
Katharine Burn, University of Oxford
Prof Elizabeth Graham, University College London
Prof Ben Davis, University of Oxford
Julie Hartill, Imperial College London
Emma Hopper, Univeristy of Essex
Martin Lohrer, University of Oxford
Dr Vidya Kumar, Leicester University
Abigail Boucher, Aston University
Prof Dan Healey, University of Oxford
Thomas Jellis, University of Oxford
S Elizabeth Anderson, University of Aberdeen
Liz Woolley, University of Oxford
Emma Curtin, University of Liverpool
Prof Mohamed-Salah Omri, University of Oxford
Jane-Marie Collins, University of Nottingham (UCU Branch committee member)
James Brown, University of Oxford
Claire Gwenlan, University of Oxford
Dr David Johnson, University of Oxford
Nayanika Mathur, University of Oxford
Tom Matheson, University of Leicester
Athanasios Velios, University of Oxford
Stephanie Oswald, University of Leicester
Paola Cognigni, University of Oxford
Prof Peter D Campion, University of Hull (retd.)
B. Todd Huffman, Oxford University
John Nicholas, University of Oxford
Bettina Lange, Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford
Ciaran L Kelly, University of Oxford
Julien Devriendt, University of Oxford
Prof Liz Schafer, Royal Holloway
Prof Krina Zondervan, University of Oxford
Maria Guarnieri, University of Leicester
Nicolette M Makovicky, University of Oxford
Prof Keston Sutherland, University of Sussex
Monica Pearl, University of Manchester
Christos Ioannou, University of Bristol
Prof Rami Abboud, University of Dundee
Jon Humphries, University of Manchester
M Mulheran, University of Leicester
Prof Tony Weidberg, Oxford University
Roberto Scipioni, University of Sussex
Cristina Romano, Imperial College London
Dr Shiladitya Banerjee, University College London
Savannah Whaley, King’s College London
Aoife McDermott, Cardiff University
Dana Ofiteru, Newcastle University
Emma Parker, University of Leicester
Neil Caithness, University of Oxford
Professor Christopher Gerry, University of Oxford
Janina Dill, University of Oxford
Jack Kelly, Mathematical Institute, The University of Oxford
Kerry Lewis, Aberystwyth University
Joss Wright, University of Oxford
Vlad Mykhnenko, University of Oxford
Anita Schrader McMillan, University of Oxford
Jonathan Lee, Newcastle University
Barbara Jones, Aberystwyth University
Jonathan Seglow, Royal Holloway, University of London
Mike Poltorak, University of Kent
Jonathan Seglow, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Marcus Banks, University of Oxford
Alex MacLaren, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh
Prof Paul Clarke, University of Essex
Laurence Harris, SOAS University of London
Anna Duncan, University of Oxford (UCU branch committee member)
Steve New, University of Oxford
Prof Jane Kaye, University of Oxford
Andy Stoane, University of Dundee
Prof Robert Evans, University of Oxford
Prof Richard Lewis, Newcastle University
Paola Ceccarelli, University College London
Christine Battersby, University of Warwick (retd.)
Kirsteen Paton, University of Liverpool
Paul Conville, University of Leicester
Charles vincent, Oxford University
Alex Taylor, City, University of London
Kevin Grecksch, University of Oxford
Gina Neff, University of Oxford
Prof Jeremy Lakey, Newcastle University
Vanessa Diaz, University College London
Freja Hunt, University of Reading
Jason Harris, University of Oxford
Denise607, University Oxford
Wolf-Gerrit Fruh, Heriot-Watt University
Benjamin Blount, Imperial College London
Prof Robert Gildea, University of Oxford
Mary Rudling, University of Sussex
Gemma Mitchell, University of Leicester
Joseph Graystone, University of Oxford
Andy King, University of Southampton
Prof Armin Reichold, Oxford University
Will Jones, Royal Holloway University of London
Carlo Cenciarelli, Cardiff University
Prof Jonathan Ashmore, University College London
Roberto Roccu, King’s College London
Timothy Wilson, University of Dundee
Philip Mountford, Oxford University
Prof Matthew Bevis, Oxford University
Dave Procter, Leeds Beckett University (UCU branch convenor, Headingley)
Claire Laubier, SOAS, University of London
Seamus Holden, Newcastle University
Mary Claire Halvorson, Goldsmiths University of London
Hazel Conley, University of the West of England
Prof Linda Sharp, Newcastle University
Rosemary Dearden, University of Oxford (retd.)
Katie Gray, University of Reading
Sarah Irving, King’s College London
Carlos Grijalva-Eternod, University College London
Maryam Shahmanesh, University College London
Candice Morey, Cardiff University
Mark Gillings, University of Leicester
Alison Wilde, Leeds Beckett University
Simukai Chigudu, University of Oxford
Prof Richard Gombrich, Oxford University
Owen Maroney, University of Oxford
Andrew Melling, University of Oxford
Natalia Cecire, University of Sussex
Lucy Blaxland, University of Oxford
Peter J. King, Pembroke College, University of Oxford
Gareth Langley, University of Oxford
Duncan Adam, University of Warwick (UCU branch vice president)
Prof Elleke Boehmer, University of Oxford
Prof Robin Cohen, University of Oxford (retd.)
Rhys Thatcher, Aberystwyth University
Prof David Twell, University of Leicester
Prof Gary Lock, University of Oxford
Prof Ash Asudeh, University of Oxford
Dan Lawrence, Durham University
Rachel Garfield, University of Reading
Prof Martin C.J. Maiden, University of Oxford
Markus Eichhorn, University of Nottingham (UCU branch health & safety officer)
Iñaki Garcia-Blanco, Cardiff University
J-L Schwenninger, University of Oxford
Sara Morris, Lancaster University
Prof Kurt Mills, University of Dundee
Carlo De Lillo, University of Leicester
Anne-Cécile Déclais, University of Dundee
Lu Gram, University College London
Jose C. Carvajal Lopez, University of Leicester
Prof Stephen Wagg, Leeds Beckett University
Neil Taylor, Aberystwyth University
Rob Thomas, Cardiff University
Ken Norris, Institute of Zoology
Helene Augar, University of Oxford
Dr Hannah Qurk, University of Manchester
John Williams, Aberystwyth University
David Steinsaltz, University of Oxford
Matt Green, University of Nottingham (UCU branch president)
Alison Gilmour, The Open University in Scotland
Kris Beicher, University of Leeds
Stuart Lang, University of Dundee
Helen Flynn, University of Dundee
Prof Andrew Gibson, Royal Holloway, University of London
Maria Alejandra Crosta, University of Oxford
Roberto Moreira, Imperial college London
Owen Radford-Lloyd, University of Leeds
Elaine Hill, University of Central Lancashire
Natalie Adamson, University of St Andrews
Prof Evelyn Ruppert, Goldsmiths, University of London
Gerry Mooney, The Open University
Algy Kazlauciunas, Leeds University
Ignazia Posadinu, University of Essex
Kelly Beattie, University of Dundee
Timothy Easun, Cardiff University
Helen Cammack, University of St Andrews
Jo Eastlake, Aberystwyth University
Jill Hohenstein, King’s College London
Prof Christopher Lance, University of Leeds (retd.)
Cordoba, Leeds Beckett University
Nicholas Allen, Royal Holloway, University of London
Benno Teschke, University of Sussex
Prof Anthony Mandal, Cardiff University
Anselm Heinrich, University of Glasgow
Prof Pamela Sammons, University of Oxford
Tom Hamilton, University of Cambridge
Suzanne Duce, University of Dundee
Prof David G. Anderson, University of Aberdeen
Caroline Thurston, University of Oxford
David Tyfield, Lancaster University
Andrew Lindridge, Newcastle University London
Nat Holtham, London School of Economics and Political Science
Sasha Dall, University of Exeter
Bahadur Najak, Durham University
Anna Fox, University of Liverpool
Virginia Fisher, University of Plymouth (UCU branch committee member)
Michael Malay, University of Bristol
Simon Hooker, University of Oxford
Bahadur Najak, Durham University
Gerald Williams, University of Essex
Simon Woods, Newcastle University
David Huyssen, University of York
Tessa Lewin, Institute of Development Studies
Tomos Robinson, Newcastle University
Prof Keith Abrams, University of Leicester
Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, University of Oxford
Ruth Hatcher, University of Leicester
Elia Valentini, University of Essex
Carwyn Morris, London School of Economics
Jane Langford, Aberystwyth University
Brett Mills, University of East Anglia (UCU branch president)
Kate Thorpe, University of Sussex
Marion Spöring, University of Dundee (UCU branch committee member)
Prof Alison Phipps, University of Glasgow
Prof Nicholas Hammond, Cambridge University
Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, University College London
Prof Michelle Lefevre, University of Sussex
Paul Rock, Cardiff University
Prof Andrew Philippides, University of Sussex
Brian Goss , Loughborough University
Prof Louise Jackson, Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance
Eleanor Newbigin, SOAS, University of London
Michael Bacon, Royal Holloway, University of London
Ben Walker, University of Oxford
Fran Disbury, Aberystwyth University
Prof Peter Nolan, University of Leicester
Anna Milsom, University of Leicester
Oliver Broad, University College London
Sareen Galbraith, Leeds Beckett University (UCU representative)
Simon Jones, Cardiff University
Rebecca Stewart, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Kirsty Newsome, Sheffield University
Prof Alena Ledeneva, University College London
Prof Jo Moran-Ellis, University of Sussex
Chiara Minestrelli, University of the Arts London
Prof Rebecca Braun, Lancaster University
Johnny Darlington, SOAS (UCU branch secretary)
Prof Bernhard Moser, Cardiff University
Prof Jonathan Garton, University of Warwick
Charles Marsh, University of Oxford
Michaela Benson, Goldsmiths University of London
Julian Dye, University of Oxford
Prof Jane Wheelock, Newcastle University (retd.)
Catherine Carr, University of Dundee
Tom Davies, Imperial College London
Ben Clifford, University College London
Linnaea Stockall, Queen Mary University of London
Kevin Pascoe, The Open University (UCU activist – Wales)
Heather McKnight, University of Sussex
Margaretta Jolly, University of Sussex
Hazel Andrews, Liverpool John Moores University
Prof Mark Stuart, University of Leeds
Shivani Singh, University College London
Sue Walsh, University of Reading
John Cleary, Heriot-Watt University
Hwee San Tan, SOAS University of London
Dr Andy Williams, Cardiff University
Sheila Curtis, University College London
Akil N Awan, Royal Holloway, University of London
Andy Swiffin, University of Dundee
Annamaria Carusi, University of Sheffield
Carrie Ackrill, University of Leicester
Christina Gutekunst, University of Essex
Rebecca Marsland, University of Edinburgh
Claudia Mazzà, University of Sheffield
Barbara Sakarya, University College London Institute of Education
Prof Kerry Hood, Cardiff University
Des McGhee, University of Strathclyde
David Hughes, SOAS, University of London
Prof Allyson Fiddler, Lancaster University
Prof Mark Graham, University of Oxford
Patricia Gaya, University of Bristol
Dr Chris Westbrook, University of Reading
Melanie Lovatt, University of Stirling
Helen Dennis, Cardiff University
James McDonald, Bangor University
Paul Martin, University of Leicester
Patricia Riddell, University of Reading
Prof Jorge Díaz-Cintas, University College London
Fabio Gygi, SOAS, University of London
William Hay, University College London
Finbarr Hayes, University of Manchester
Melissa Nolas, Goldsmiths College, University of London
Ian Swift, University of Dundee
Katrina Mitcheson, University of the West of England
Johann Unger, Lancaster University
Richard Kulczak, University of Brighton
Glyn Nelson, Newcastle University
Prof David Collison, University of Dundee (retd.)
Rich Moth, Liverpool Hope University
Mark Davis, University of Leeds
Prof Matthew Jefferies, University of Manchester
Rachel Harkness, University of Edinburgh
Soudeh Ghaffari, Newcastle University
Carl Walker, University of Brighton
Helen Dodd, University of Reading
Cathy Bergin, University of Brighton
Lara Coleman, University of Sussex
Simon Fokt, University of Edinburgh
Prof John Pendlebury, Newcastle University
Lisa Richardson, University College London
Richard Powell, University of Cambridge
Harry Whitehead, University of Leicester
Nick Riches, Newcastle University
Professor Julie Price, Cardiff University
Oli Mould, Royal Holloway University of London
Joseph Lawson, Newcastle University
Lizzie Stewart, King’s College London
Jolene Skordis, University College London
Murray Goulden, University of Nottingham
Anita Rupprecht, University of Brighton
Stuart Haszeldine, University of Edinburgh
Prof Marsha Rosengarten, Goldsmiths, University of London
Lise Fontaine, Cardiff University
Ian James Kidd, University of Nottingham
Serenella Massidda, Roehampton University
Prof Bill Burgwinkle, University of Cambridge
Richard Hornsey, University of Nottingham
Prof Dawn Ades, University of Essex (retd.)
Niall Anderson, University of Edinburgh
Kenneth Moffat, University of Strathclyde
Christos Kremmydas, Royal Holloway, University of London
Dr Sarah Mosedale, University of Liverpool
Dr Steffan Davies, University of Bristol
Caroline Ackley, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Dorron Otter, Leeds Beckett University
Lizzie Thynne, Sussex University
Prof Saleem Bhatti, University of St Andrews
Claire Risley, Aberystwyth University
Kevin Hickson, University of Liverpool
Phoebe V Moore, Leicester University
Marc Welsh, Aberystwyth University
Felix B. Kern, University of Sussex
Neil Cocks, University of Reading
Alex Houen, University of Cambridge
Tom Cahill, Lancaster University
Pedro Ramos Pinto, University of Cambridge
Leo McCann, University of Manchester
Robert Thompson, University of Cambridge
Prof James Ladyman, University of Bristol
Michael Bravo, University of Cambridge
Kerry Moore, Cardiff University
Darren Fox, University of Liverpool
Anthony Leaker, University of Brighton
Maarten Steenhagen, University of Cambridge
Sarah Lockwood, University of Strathclyde
Mark Abel, University of Brighton (UCU coordinating committee chair)
Duncan Bell, University of Cambridge
Stephan Reiff-Marganiec, University of Leicester
Dr Abdullah Yusuf, University of Dundee
Gabriella Alberti, University of Leeds
Hannah Knox, University College London
Stan Finney, University of Cambridge
Prof Robert Gordon, University of Cambridge
Ian Colvin, University of Cambridge
Paul Warde, University of Cambridge
Prof Austin Smith, University of Cambridge
Prof Clive D Fraser, University of Leicester
Prof Jocelyn Monroe, Royal Holloway, University of London
Toby Day, University College London
Rosalind Haslett, Newcastle University
Michael Mair, University of Liverpool
Alexander J. Wilson, Durham University
Iza Hussin, University of Cambridge
Sara Crangle, University of Sussex
Joy Charnley, University of Reading
Matthew Barr, University of Cambridge
Mark Stevenson, Newcastle University
Marta F Suarez, Universities of Liverpool, Salford, Manchester
Prof Richard Farndale, University of Cambridge (UCU branch pensions representative)
Anton Enright, University of Cambridge
Christophe Gagne, University of Cambridge
Pieter van Houten, University of Cambridge
Paula Hill, University of Bristol
Penny Vera-Sanso, Birkbeck University of London
Melanie Williams, University of East Anglia
Rebecca Roache, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Norman Fairclough, Lancaster University (retd.)
Agnieszka Iwasiewicz-Wabnig, University of Cambridge
John Masterson, University of Sussex
Ghada Khattab, Newcastle University
Prof Jonathan Webber, Cardiff University
Helen Macnaughtan, SOAS University of London
Paula Roberts, Bangor University
Prof Nuno Ferreira, University of Sussex
Ben Cartlidge, University of Liverpool
Prof Ingrid Sharp, University of Leeds
Elaine Sanderson, University of Liverpool
Eugene Michail, University of Brighton
Prof Nicholas Royle, University of Sussex
Prof Peter Milne, University of Stirling
Chris Cocking, University of Brighton (UCU branch casework coordinator)
Prof Matthew Baylis, University of Liverpool
Simon Schaffer, University of Cambridge
David Wearing, Royal Holloway, University of London
Gavin Alexander, University of Cambridge
William McGowan, University of Liverpool
Charlotte Lemanski, University of Cambridge
Jane Wright, University of Bristol
Sarah Wydall, Aberystwyth University
Prof Sean Allan, University of St Andrews
Catherine Aicken, University College London
Prof Moyra Haslett, Queen’s University Belfast
Tom Dyson, Royal Holloway College, University of London
Julieta Galante, University of Cambridge
Kenneth Weir, University of Leicester
Prof Angus Macintyre FRS, Queen Mary University of London, Edingburgh (retd.)
Giorgia Busso, University of Cambridge
Prof Raphael Salkie, University of Brighton
Swidbert R Ott, University of Leicester
Helge Hiram Jensen, Kristiania University College
Paolo Novak, SOAS, University of London
Viktor Korolchuk, Newcastle University
Subir Sinha, SOAS, University of London
Louise Purbrick, University of Brighton
Jacqui Close, Newcastle University
Jean Jenkins, Cardiff University
Angharad Closs Stephens, Swansea University
Rachel O’Connell, University of Sussex
Mette Louise Berg, University College London
Lorna Harries, University of Exeter
Dr Emma Palmer, University of Leicester
Prof David Simon, Royal Holloway, University of London
Elizabeth DeMarrais, University of Cambridge
Par Kumaraswami, University of Reading
Dr Craig Jordan-Baker, University of Brighton
Kyran Joughin, University of the Arts London (UCU branch secretary)
Prof Emilia Jamroziak, University of Leeds
Alison Montague, Lancaster University
Prof Andreas Bieler, University of Nottingham
Sarah Gale, City, University of London
Ross Balzaretti, University of Nottingham
Prof Kirsti Bohata, Swansea University
Salma Patel, University of Salford
Dafydd Jones, Cardiff University
Sunny Harrison, University of Leeds
Oliver Darlington, University of Sussex
Jesse Elvin, City, University of London
Prof Sir Richard Jolly, University of Sussex
Prof Jim Wilson, University of Edinburgh
Prof David B. Clarke, Swansea University
Kate Maclean, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof S. Sayyid, University of Leeds
Georgina Evans, St John’s College, Cambridge
David Jeffery, University of Liverpool
Kate Maclean, Birkbeck, University of London
Prof Alfons Weber, University of Oxford
Sarah Crafter, Open University
Ruth Herd, Imperial College London
Prof Peter Totterdell, University of Sheffield
Prof Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, IDS, University of Sussex
Prof Raheela Khan, University of Nottingham
Hardy Schwamm, Lancaster University
Catherine Packham, University of Sussex
Benjamin Gardner, King’s College London
Poone Yazdanpanah, LICA, Lancaster University
Christina Tsouparopoulou, University of Cambridge
Bhavna Dave, SOAS, University of London
Hester Lees-Jeffries, University of Cambridge
Oli Williams, University of Leicester
Ben Hannigan, Cardiff University
Stefan K. Piechnik, University of Oxford
Catherine Hurley, University of Cambridge
Arjan Keizer, University of Manchester
Iain MacInnes, University of the Highlands and Islands
Ian Forrest, University of Oxford
Stephen Hopkins, University of Leicester
Judith Watson, University of Brighton
Prof ML Murphy, University of Sussex
Kanchan Mukherjee, Lancaster University
Jenny Macleod, University of Hull
Benjamin Fowler, University of Sussex
Nir Arielli, University of Leeds
Anne Kavanagh, University of Essex
Kia-Chong Chua, King’s College London
Dr Mark Newman, University College London
Prof Rob Christley, University of Liverpool
Joao Passos, Newcastle University
Prof Val Gillies, University of Westminster
Alexandre Benedetto, Lancaster University
Prof David Owen, University of Southampton
Sethina Watson, University of York
Mark Winterbottom, University of Cambridge
Tim Button, University of Cambridge
Christina Evans, Aberystwyth University
Dr Nandini Bhattacharya, University of Dundee
Sara Bragadina, University College London
Kate Peters, Murray Edwards College, Cambridge University
Prof Helen Wood, University of Leicester
Jacob Phelps, Lancaster University
Danijela Trenkic, University of York
Prof Ted Briscoe, University of Cambridge
Richard Badge, University of Leicester
Sue Cooper, University of Nottingham
Jo Gibbs, University College London
Dr Paul Joseph Lennon, University of St Andrews
Mark Blacklock, Newcastle University
Senthorun Raj, Keele University
Joel Smith, University of Manchester
Berit Bliesemann de Guevara, Aberystwyth University
Harry Smith, University of Cambridge
Lucia Dolce, SOAS University of London
Rose Sawyer, University of Leeds
Dorota Goluch, Cardiff University
Reem Abou-El-Fadl, SOAS University of London
Prof Bulent Gokay, Keele University (UCU branch committee member)
Bethan Benwell, University of Stirling (UCU representative)
David Pérez-Suárez, University College London
Gordon Reavley, University of Oxford
Prof Bill Adams, University of Cambridge
Mark Featherstone, Keele University
Bela Chatterjee, Lancaster University
Juliet Hawthorn, Heriot Watt University
Pauline von Hellermann, Goldsmiths University of London
Prof Patrick Keiller, University of Cambridge
Rosa Andújar, King’s College London
Rob Lutton, University of Nottingham
Alexandre Nobajas, Keele University
Gholam Khiabany, Goldsmiths, University of London
Prof Darrow Schecter, University of Sussex
Nataliya Brima, University College London
Prof. Karin Littau, University of Essex
Jen Birks, University of Glasgow
Daniel Jewesbury, Ulster University
Alison Lawson, Heriot Watt University
Amy Baldwin, Cardiff University
Prof Stephen Tooth, Aberystwyth University
Prof Tom Johnstone, University of Reading
Alix Cage, Keele University
Prof Adrian Robert Walmsley, Durham University
Jeremy Gow, Goldsmiths, University of London
Maria Plotnikova, Aberystwyth University
Prof Jeremy Gibbons, University of Oxford
Prof Lucy Suchman, Lancaster University
Prof Monika Buscher, Lancaster University
Ian Williams, Imperial College London
Asher Rospigliosi, University of Brighton
Asier Unciti-Broceta, University of Edinburgh
Priya Silverstein, Lancaster University
Prof Jonathan Corney, University of Strathclyde
Matilda Sherwood, university of Dundee
Prof Graham Mort, Lancaster University
Anna Piela, Leeds Trinity University
Omar Feraboli, University of Dundee
Madeleine Reeves, University of Manchester
Maria Angela Ferrario, Lancaster University
Konstantinos Dimopoulos
Jonathan Mair, University of Kent
Karin Tusting, Lancaster University
Julia Gallagher, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Paula Hyde, University of Manchester
Prof Alan Kemp, University of Strathclyde
Lucy Delap, University of Cambridge
Rosie McGee, Institute of Development Studies
William Perkins, Aberystwyth University
Ruth Young, University of Leicester
Dr Chris Adams, University of Bristol
Katharine Price Edwards, Lancaster University
Tina Lehmbeck, University of Sussex
Tom Wright, University of Sussex
Patricia McManus, University of Brighton
Prof Chris Perriam, University of Manchester
Prof Paul Coulton, Lancaster University
Adam J White, University of Winchester
Alastair Kocho-Williams, Aberystwyth University
Anna Notaro, University of Dundee
Janna Graham, Goldsmiths, University of London
Prof David Porteous, University of Edinburgh
James Fern, University of Bath
Joanna Page, University of Cambridge
Benedict Allbrooke, University of Sussex
Dan Stowell, Queen Mary University of London
Iain Fothergill, University of Lancaster
Ben Colburn, University of Glasgow
Agathe Mora, University of Edinburgh
Christiana Tsaousi, University of Leicester
Simon Ellis, Coventry University
Prof Marcus Wood, Sussex University
Christopher Donaldson, Lancaster University
Prof Elspeth Webb, Cardiff University
M. G. Hayler, University of Brighton
András Bárány, SOAS University of London
Prof Angie Hobbs, University of Sheffield
Timothy Armstrong, University of Dundee
Jane Cavanagh, University College London
Prof Lucas D. Introna, Lancaster University
Prof Gavin Butt, University of Sussex
Sian Furlong-Davies, Aberystwyth University
Marina Papoutsi, University College London
Joseph Kisolo-Ssonko, The University of Nottingham
Tony Williams, Northumbria University
Rachel Burr, University of Sussex
Dr Richard Dunphy, University of Dundee
Teresa Torres, University of Essex
Alex Latham, Swansea University
Kayleigh Garthwaite, University of Birmingham
John Maule, University of Sussex
Gabriele Badano, University of Cambridge
Charlie Cozens, University of Brighton
Amanda Bingley, Lancaster University
Mary Anne Francis, University of Brighton
Agneta M-L Svalberg, University of Leicester
Pascale Lorber, University of Leicester
Dr Adrian Chown, University of Brighton
Prof Helen Graham, Royal Holloway University of London
Anna Barford, University of Cambridge
Catherine Fritz, University of Northampton (UCU branch membership secretary)
David Balch, University of Oxford
Liz Gloyn, Royal Holloway, University of London
Anna Whitelock, Royal Holloway, University of London
Janice Winship, University of Sussex
Yvonne Fox, Lancaster University
Prof Bruce Graham, University of Stirling
Leonie Hicks, Canterbury Christ Church University
Prof Erica Haimes, Newcastle University (retd.)
Simon Wilkinson, Brighton University
Matthew Alexander, University of Strathclyde
Keith Brown, Heriot-Watt University
Seth Mehl, University of Sheffield
Sam Ladkin, University of Sheffield
Poul Christoffersen, University of Cambridge
Stephen Montgomery, University of Cambridge
Ian Cowell, Newcastle University
Fanny Chouc, Heriot-Watt University
Giacomo Benedetto, Royal Holloway, University of London
Wendy Best, University College London
Aminur Rouf, Newcastle University
Nick Cooper, University of Essex
Ross Adamson, University of Brighton
Hugh Shanahan, Royal Holloway, University of London
Karl Spracklen, Leeds Beckett University
Alexander Samson, University College London
John Sellars, Royal Holloway, University of London
Helen Tyson, University of Sussex
Alexander Samson, University College London
Eva Higginbotham, University of Cambridge
Richard Royce, The University of Brighton
Simon Jones, University of Stirling
Karijn van den Berg, Aberystwyth University
Paul Williams, University of Leicester
Niamh O’Hanlon, University of Liverpool
Prof Paul Nugent, University of Edinburgh
Prof Frank Sengpiel, Cardiff University
Prof Peter Harris, University of Sussex
Nicola Pratt, University of Warwick
Timothy Clifton, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Harry T. Dimitriou, University College London
Wilma de Jong, University of Sussex, Univeristy of Sussex
David Overend, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Adam Harvey, Newcastle University
Josh Cameron, University of Brighton
Martin Nelmes, Aberystwyth University
Fiona Harris, University of Stirling
Simidele Dosekun, University of Sussex
Jonathan Sexton, University of Essex
Anton van der Merwe, University of Oxford
Prof Alison Findlay, Lancaster University
Martin Tranter, Aberystwyth University (UCU branch treasurer)
Prof Tavi Murray, Swansea University
Rupert Waldron, London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London (UCU branch chair)
Bob Smale, University of Brighton (UCU school representative)
Daniel Elphick, Royal Holloway, University of London
Prof Tom O’Malley, Aberystwyth (retd.)
Alexey Lyapin, Royal Holloway, University of London
Sarah Hendry, University of Dundee
Jen Ross, University of Edinburgh
Alexandra Homolar, University of Warwick
Emily Butterworth, King’s College London
Sarah Higgins, Aberystwyth University
Noam Bergman, University of Sussex
Kevin Latham, SOAS, University of London
John Timberlake, Middlesex University
Jane Major, University of Sussex
Claire Garnett, University College London
Anna Brown, University of Oxford
Erica Evans, University of Brighton
Prof Jens Bolte, Royal Holloway, University of London
Ana Winters, Aberystwyth University
Prof Tim Gershon, University of Warwick
Prof Robert Mills, University College London
Mark Wyer, Aberystwyth University
Catherine Matthews, University of Brighton
Prof Chris Ponting, University of Edinburgh
Hannah Furby, University College London
Evie Browne, University of Sussex
Michelle Farrell, University of Liverpool
Prof Matthew Kieran, University of Leeds
Ruth Fullam, Cardiff University
Lesley Stark, University Of Edinburgh
Ian Keirle, Aberystwyth University
Pamela Lewis, University of Brighton
Prof Rachel Beckles Willson, Royal Holloway, University of London
Daniel Thomas, University of Cambridge
Simon Rees, Intitute of Development Studies
Prof Louiza Odysseos, University of Sussex
Marion Bougamont, University of Cambridge
Ros Murray, King’s College London
Bernadette Bartlam, Keele University
Rudolf Winter, Aberystwyth University
Lisa Kelly, University of Glasgow
Helen Brookman, King’s College London
Adam Vernone, University of Reading
Charlotte Chadderton, University of East London
Alan Lovatt, Aberystwyth University
Emma Timms-Taravella, Aberystwyth University
Prof Suzanne Richards, University of Leeds
Kélina Gotman, King’s College London
Prof Matthew Cornford, University of Brighton
Prof Ian Roberts, University of Cambridge
Barry Luckock, University of Sussex
Prof Peter Hancock, University of Stirling
Lucy Taylor, Aberystwyth University
Prof Muireann Quigley, University of Birmingham
Prof William Gould, University of Leeds
Karen Keenan, University College London
Deepta Chopra, Institute of Development Studies
Deborah Shenton, Institute of Development Studies
Kerrie Thomas, Cardiff University
Alison Clifton, Lancaster University (UCU branch committee member)
Sarah Leahy, Newcastle University
Adriana Ravagnani, Aberystwyth University
Weijie Wang, University of Dundee
David Graham, Loughborough University
Andrew Kennedy, SOAS, University of London
Philip Connell, University of Cambridge
Ian Raper, University College London
Ray Bush, University of Leeds
Prof Bob Brecher, University of Brighton
Monica Dorobantu, University of Brighton
Emily Cox, Cardiff University
Ian Christie, University of Dundee
Ian D. Thomas, Aberystwyth University
Christian Luczanits, SOAS University of London
Patricia Thomson, University of Dundee
Kevin Deighton, Leeds Beckett University
Sarah Watson-Jones, Aberystwyth University
Kay Inckle, University of Liverpool
Fiona Love, University of Cambridge
Elaine Jensen, Aberystwyth University
Caroline Peet, University of Dundee
Caroline Gatt, University of Aberdeen
Vesna Stojanovik, University of Reading
Daniel E. Josephy Hernández, Dalian University, China
Gary Hicks, University of Brighton
Tom Vaughan, Aberystwyth University (UCU postgraduate rep)
Catherine Dieval, Lancaster University
Alun R. Coker, University College London
Elizabeth L’Estrange, University of Birmingham
Amy Tooth Murphy, Royal Holloway, University of London
Louise Connell, Lancaster University
Claudia Kappenberg, University of Brighton
Nigel Poole, SOAS University of London
Nils-Hennes Stear, University of Southampton
Gerard Abou Jaoude, University College London
Ioannis Nezis, School of Life Sciences
Sonali Wayal, University College London
Rolf Gohm, Aberystwyth University
Steven Baker, University College London
Zoe Davis, SOAS
Alexander Pitchford, Aberystwyth University
Keith Turvey, University of Brighton
Prof Erik Millstone, University of Sussex (retd.)
Lucy Welsh, University of Sussex
Rhun Fychan, Aberystwyth University
Michelle Pentecost, Kings College London
Jacqueline Lister, University of Strathclyde
Suzanne Hodge, Lancaster University
Roland Clark, University of Liverpool
Prof Andrew Shepherd, University of Leeds
Corina Logan, University of Cambridge
Prof Sally Alexander, Goldsmiths University of London (retd.)
Michael Naef, Royal Holloway
Alan Whitaker, Lancaster University
Michael Coogan, Lancaster University
Eirini Konstantinidou, University of Essex
Prof Rosemary Betterton, Lancaster University (retd.)
Mette Wiggen, University of Leeds
Prof Peter Squires, University of Brighton
Christina Demski, Cardiff University
Jessica Chiba, Royal Holloway, University of London
Jak Peake, University of Essex
Helen Foxhall Forbes, Durham University
Paul Foulkes, University of York
Piotr Cieplak, University of Sussex
Andrew Ridout, University College London
Prof Tim Woods, Aberystwyth University
Prof Jay Mistry, Royal Holloway University of London
Tony Roberts, Institute for Development Studies
Alun Carter, Newcastle University
Fiona Kumari Campbell, University of Dundee
Chelo de Andres, Plymouth University (UCU branch vice-chair)
Irene McMullin, University of Essex
Scott Rodgers, Birkbeck, University of London
Tamsin O’Connell, University of Cambridge
Julie Sullivan, University of Cambridge
Michaela Edwards, Lancaster University
Amanda Whitehead, University of Dundee
Kate Spence, University of Cambridge
Konstantinos Koumatos, University of Sussex
Dominic Kelly, University of Warwick
Albert Cilliers, University of Brighton
Prof Margarete Heck, University of Edinburgh
David Gibson, University of Cambridge
Prof Tim Ayers, University of York
Claude Baesens, University of Warwick
Mark Jackson, University of Bristol
Coral Houtman, University of South Wales (retd.)
Prof David A Rothery, The Open University
Rod Chalk, University of Oxford
Florian Theil, University of Warwick
Prof Miles Reid, FRS, University of Warwick
Angela Chiu, SOAS, University of London
Patrick Alexander, Oxford Brookes University
Charlotte Heath-Kelly, University of Warwick
David Wood, University of Warwick
Prof Robert MacKay, Univerity of Warwick
Andrew Jenkins, University College London
Saul Schleimer, University of Warwick
Ian Cushing, University College London
Sheila Cullen, University of Brighton (UCU coordinating committee secretary)
Prof Richard Sharp, University of Warwick
Lauren Pyott, SOAS, University of London
Joshua Lord, Cardiff University
James Sprittles, University of Warwick
Julia Martin, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
James Brand, Lancaster University
Victoria Basham, Cardiff University
Prof Claudio De Magalhaes, University College London
Tania Oliveira, University of Leicester
Prof William C Earnshaw, University of Edinburgh
Prof James Robinson, University of Warwick
Ruth Humphreys, Heriot-Watt University (UCU branch committee member)
Luke Treadwell, Oriental Institute, Oxford
Prof Diana Laurillard, University College London
Martin Edney, Newcastle University
Calista Williams, Aberystwyth University
Prof Deborah Philips, University of Brighton
Erik Clark, University of Cambridge
Prof Ivor Goodson, University of Brighton
Gordon Allison, Aberystwyth University
Ann Swinney, University of Dundee
Prof Philip Preshaw, Newcastle University
Prof Raj Bhopal, University of Edinburgh
Michael Grinfeld, University of Strathclyde
Mark Shuttleworth, University College London
Prof Graham Dawson, University of Brighton
Kevin McSorley, University of Portsmouth
Prof Tim Kirkham, University of Liverpool
Steven Emery, Heriot-Watt University
Melanie Gill, University of Brighton
Prof Rachel Harrison, SOAS
Gavin Laing, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Maggie Morrison, University of Edinburgh
Prof Laurie Cohen, University of Nottingham
Prof Diane Waller, University of Brighton
Abigail Page, University college London
Andrew Seal, University College London
Erin Roberts, Cardiff University
Prof Joe Sim, Liverpool John Moores University
Louise Alldridge, University of Plymouth
James LaCourse, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Timothy Jones, Cardiff University
Ken Turner, University of Brighton
Shuruq Naguib, Lancaster University
Anke Bernau, University of Manchester
Stefan Grosskinsky, University of Warwick
Sue Miller, Leeds Beckett University
Marc Vander Linden, University of Cambridge
Prof Anne-Marie Fortier, Lancaster University
Kai Easton, SOAS, University of London
Gloria Whittaker, University of Brighton
Aga Kosinska, University College London
Prof Ana Carden-Coyne, University of Manchester
Rena Sherman, University College London
justmikejust, Heriot-Watt University
Gilly Carr, University of Cambridge
Cai Wingfield, University of Lancaster
Will Jackson, Liverpool John Moores University (UCU branch committee member)
Keith Williams, University of Dundee
Barbara Pizziconi, SOAS, University Of London
Licia Cianetti, Royal Holloway, University of London
Sarah Gwenlan, Aberystwyth University
Simon Carr, Queen Mary University of London
Caroline Floccia, University of Plymouth
Maire Ni Mhordha, Maynooth University
Alan Drew, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Charles French, University of Cambridge
Prof Peter de Bolla, University of Cambridge
Prof Carron Shankland, University of Stirling
Josh Moos, Leeds Beckett University
Cédric Moreau, University of Strathclyde
Sian Lloyd-Williams, Aberystwyth University
Claire Delle Luche, University of Essex
Philip Mader, Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
Bryan Hawkins, Canterbury Christ Church University
Alice Street, University of Edinburgh
Jeremy Huggett, University of Glasgow
Govind Songara, Royal Holloway University of London
Mario Prost, Keele University
Alice Wilson, University of Sussex
David Thomas, Birkbeck College
Walter Federle, University of Cambridge
Nick Hodgin, Cardiff University
Nat Raha, University of Sussex
Susanne Hakenbeck, University of Cambridge
Kathleen Jenkins, University of Edinburgh
Katy Budge, University of Sussex
Caragh Wells, University of Bristol
Lorcan Whitehead, University of Essex
Paul Phillips, Open University
David Loeffler, Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick
Craig Jones, Lancaster University
Benjamin Poore, Queen Mary University of London
Elly Wallis, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Prof Ruth Parry, Loughborough University
Adam Epstein, Mathematics Institute, Warwick University
Prof Rupert Brown, University of Sussex
Helen Bowes-Catton, The Open University
Stephen Lax, University of Leeds
Prof John Pryor, University of Sussex
Corinna Riva, University College London
Sharon Kivland, Sheffield Hallam University (UCU representative)
Simon Marshall, Aberystwyth University
Wei Xun, University College London
Lara Perry, University of Brighton
Chris Kempshall, University of Sussex
Paula Sheppard, University of Oxford
Donald Sannella, University of Edinburgh
Reima Ana Maglajlic, University of Sussex
Matthew Rodger, Queen’s University Belfast
Liliana Janik, University of Cambridge
Rebecca Bowler, Keele University
Jill Kirby, University of Sussex
Roger Phillips, University of Sussex (UCU branch committee member)
Prof Isabelle Perez, Heriot-Watt University
Andrew Garvin, Open University
Rebecca Ogden, University of Kent
Prof Vincent Gaffney, University of Bradford
Owen O’Daly, King’s College London
Prof Stephen Driscoll, University of Glasgow
Matt Perks, University of Southampton
Qasir Shah, University College London Institute of Education
Prof Charles Elliott, University of Warwick
Prof Lorraine Whitmarsh, Cardiff University
Katherine Twamley, University College London
Prof Daniel Kelly, Cardiff University
Mark O’Reilly, University of Dundee
Susanna Rostas, Homerton College, Cambridge
Fergus Heron, University of Brighton
Prof Stephen Graham, Newcastle university
Jessica Adams, Aberystwyth University
Prof Debra Howcroft, University of Manchester
Prof Judith Jesch, University of Nottingham
Sofie Narbed, Royal Holloway, University of London
Tom Harrison, Institute of Development Studies
Dies van der Linde, Royal Holloway, University of London
Naureen Durrani, University of Sussex
Thomas Hudson, University of Warwick
Hana Sandhu, SOAS, University of London
Sophie Hope, Birkbeck, UCU representative
M Astley, University of Sussex
Caroline Wright, University of Warwick
Mia Gray, Cambridge University
Sue Currell, University of Sussex
Kenneth Brophy, University of Glasgow
Malcolm Hutchison, Aberystwyth University
Prof Nicky Hamlyn, University for the Creative Arts
Prof Maureen McNeil, Lancaster University (retd.)
Caroline Crolla, University of Reading
Michelle Reid, University of Reading
Laurence Marius Harwood, University of Reading
Prof Theo Marinis, University of Reading
Kate Johnson, University of Reading
Gerrit Holl, University of Reading
Prof Christine Cardin, University of Reading
Prof David Brauner, University of Reading
Prof Philip Beaman, University of Reading
Joanna Pawlik, University of Sussex
Deb Heighes, University of Reading
Patrick White, University of Leicester
Lena Ciric, University College London
Etienne Roesch, University of Reading
Prof Pier Luigi Vidale, University of Reading
Britta Ohm, University of Bern, Switzerland
Andrew Dawson, University College London
Laura Hammond, SOAS University of London
Ben Bridgens, Newcastle University
Samuel Doolin, University of Reading
David Field, University of Reading
Gerry Leonidas, University of Reading
Anthony Ince, Cardiff University
John Fisher, University of Reading
Vanna Motta, Cardiff University
Bryan Cameron, University of Cambridge
Prof Peter Fleming, City, University of London
Christos Pliatsikas, University of Reading
Nikola Chalashkanov, University of Leicester
Ian Thompson, Newcastle University
Prof Catharine Edwards, Birkbeck
Chris Newdick, Reading University
Ayonposi Olaoye, Aberystwyth University
Liam Harte, University of Manchester
Brian Garvey, University of Strathclyde
Ian Chilvers, University of Reading
Theo Marinis, University of Reading
Sam Brown, University of Reading
Rodolfo Hermans, University College London
Paul Faulkner, University of Sheffield
Anne Foley, University of the West of England
Nicola Abram, University of Reading
Nicola Abram, University of Reading
James McDougall, Trinity College, Oxford
Magdalena Brzeska, University of Leicester
Daniel Beer, Royal Holloway College, University of London
Prof Catherine Nash, Queen Mary University of London
Bojana Petric, Birkbeck, University of London
Laura Kormos, Lancaster University
Prof Graeme Barker, University of Cambridge (retd.)
James Agar, University College London
Adam Koszary, University of Reading
Martin Worthington, University of Cambridge
C.Clare Worley, University of Cambridge
Sarah Flude, University of Reading
Marleen Wilde, University of Reading
Peter Kruschwitz, University of Reading
Jonathan Wheatland, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Nicholas O’Shaughnessy, Queen Mary University of London
Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, University of Leicester
Rachel O’Hara, University of Sheffield
Prof Conrad Bessant, Queen Mary University of London
Maria Velasco, The Open University
Aaron Woodcock, University of Reading
Prof Iain Munro, Newcastle University
Colin Cooper, University of Reading
Prof Monika Kostera, ex-Durham University
Amy Smith, University of Reading
Christina Delistathi, Birkbeck, University of London (UCU branch vice president)
Becky Thomas, Royal Holloway University of London
Henrik Strahl, Newcastle University
Silke Burkhardt, University of Reading
Nikola Chalashkanov, University of Leicester
S Cooke, University of Warwick
Mary Agnes Krell, University of Sussex
Alexander Finch, Lancaster University
Michael Lawrence, University of Sussex
Prof Charles Sutcliffe, University of Reading
Craig Hughes, University of Reading
David Thompson, Cardiff University
Zoltán Biedermann, University College London
Katie Robertson, University of Reading
Prof Fay Dowker, Imperial College
Prof Donald Hislop, Loughborough University
Catherine Chong, Royal Holloway University of London
Rebecca Hillman, University of Exeter
Helen Pfeifer, University of Cambridge
Hannah Elliott, Royal Holloway University of London
Dewi Lewis, University College London
Thulasi Mylvaganam, Imperial College London
Gaja Maestri, University of Leicester
Ben Anderson, Keele University
Jesus Martinez Garcia, University of Bath
Davy Smith, University of York
Prof Colin Davis, University of Bristol
Prof Lucy Riall, European University Institute
Prof Sandra Cavallo, Royal Holloway, University of London
Heather McKeever, University of Reading
Eunice Lawton, University of Sheffield
Sam Allen, Loughborough. University
Andrea Butcher, University of Exeter
Sarah Frain, The Open University
David Webb, Newcastle University
Prof Anna McMullan, University of Reading
Hans S. Crombag, The University of Sussex
S Currell, Sussex
Thomas Carter, University of Brighton
David Hitchcock, Canterbury Christ Church University
Eric Maestri, University Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis
Emma Barker, The Open University
Matthew Crowley, University of the Arts London (UCU branch HPL rep)
Julia McClure, University of Glasgow
Prof Moya Lloyd, Loughborough University
Chrissy McKean, University of the Arts London
Ross Herbert, University of Reading
Kathleen Christian, The Open University
Prof Anne Gerritsen, University of Warwick
Prof Derek Holt, University of Warwick
Tania Kaiser, SOAS, University of London
Mike Orr, University of Edinburgh
Julia Welland, University of Warwick
Emily Salvesen, University of Reading
Prof Simon Potter, University of Bristol
D Xenias, Cardiff University
Simon Sleight, King’s College London
Ben Fincham, University of Sussex
Gareth Atkins, Queens’ College, Cambridge
Matthew Pain, Loughborough University
Maria Scott, University of Exeter
Colin Campbell, University of Reading
Jonathan Kemp, Birkbeck, University of London
Albert Elduque, University of Reading
Jonathan Kemp, Birkbeck, University of London
Silke Panse, University for the Creative Arts
Jim McLoughlin, University of Brighton
Robin Dunford, University of Brighton
Amy Charlesworth, Open University
Thomas Campbell, University of Leeds
Jessica Horst, University of Sussex
Leon Wainwright, The Open University
Carolyn Strong, Cardiff University
Anita Naoko Pilgrim, The Open University
Prof Paul Beynon-Davies, Cardiff University
Ahmad Jamal, Cardiff University
Taman Powell, Cardiff University
Neil Wellard, Cardiff University
Cecily Blyther, Petroc (North Devon) (UCU branch anti-casualisation officer)
Annalaura Marini, University of Bristol
Sonia L Sallazzaro Arbaci, University College London
Patricia Castanheira, University of Brighton
Carina Girvan, Cardiff University
Eyal Poleg, Queen Mary University of London
Prof Elizabeth Fisher, University College London
Sheila Malone, Lancaster University
Andolie Marguerite, Goldsmiths, University of London
Julio Decker, University of Bristol
Steven Pierce, University of Manchester
Erika Hanna, University of Bristol
Ralph Andre, University College London
Nancy Wachowich, University of Aberdeen
Andrew Smith, University of Reading
Prof Mathew Owens, University of Reading
Prof Jacopo Torriti, University of Reading
Prof Patrick Sutton, Cardiff University
Lesley Tranter, University of Reading
Catalina Mejia Moreno, University of Brighton
Stephen D Cross, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
James Green, University of Reading
Renate Dohmen, Open University
Matt Daley, University of Reading
Susan Dray, University of the Arts London
Tilo Amhoff, University of Brighton
Nicholas J. Cooper, University of Leicester
Nicholas Bardsley, University of Reading (UCU branch committee member)
Natasha Willmott, University of Reading
Christopher Chapman, University of Reading
Sarah Casey, Lancaster University
Mary Ann Lund, University of Leicester
Samantha Saville, Aberystwyth University
Myrto Symeonidis, University College London
Cara Reed, Swansea University
Morna Laing, University of the Arts London
omarlakkis, University of Sussex
Graham Clarkson, University of Reading
Sarah Lambert-Gates, University of Reading
Joanne Smith Finley, Newcastle University
Martin Hall, University College London
Rick O’Gorman, University of Essex
David Walshaw, Newcastle University
Sarah Thomas, Birkbeck, University of London
Rebecca May Johnson, Newcastle University
Jorge Catala-Carrasco, Newcastle University
Ruth Watson, University of Cambridge
Kathryn Robson, Newcastle University
Harriet Barratt, University of Sussex
Prof Greville Corbett, University of Surrey
Mamtimyn Sunuodula, Durham University
Bob Birtwell, University of Surrey
Prof Debra Skene, University of Surrey
Prof Clarissa Smith, University of Sunderland
Sarah Seaton, University of Leicester (UCU branch communications officer)
Prof Matthew Leach, University of Surrey
Chris Grocott, University of Leicester
Kate Brady, University of Surrey
James Doonan, Bangor University (UCU branch committee member)
Abigail Jones, London college of fashion
Jon Urch, University of Dundee
Philip Hancock, University of Surrey
Jo Cutler, The University of Sussex
Paul Young, Lancaster University
Rahul Rao, SOAS University of London
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Ross Forman, University of Warwick
Isabella Jackson, Trinity College Dublin
Lisa Sadler, Formerly Universities of Durham, Hertfordshire and Portsmouth
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Sarah Morgan, Cambridge University
Claudia Lapping, UCL institute of education
Damien Hall, Newcastle University
Penelope Ehrhardt, Oxford University
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Mike Poppleton, University of Southampton (retd.)
Clive Emary, Newcastle University
Phil Tomlinson, University of Bath
Leah Clark, The Open University
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Diane Butler, The Open University
Prof Peter Gray, Queen’s University Belfast
Jennifer Gosling, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Lynn Dicks, University of East Anglia
Suzanne Reimer, University of Southampton
Lata Narayanaswamy, University of Leeds
Lorraine Grant, University of Aberdeen
Prof Michael Moriarty, University of Cambridge
Bethan Stevens, University of Sussex
Russell Witterick, University of London
Peter Kellett, University of Newcastle
Julie Summers, University of Glasgow
Patricia Murrieta-Flores, Lancaster University
Claudia Wedepohl, The Warburg Institute, University of London
Hannah Lewis, University of Sheffield
Mario Burghausen, University of Essex
David Ward, University of Cambridge
Lena Ciric, University College London
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Claire Rattray, University of Glasgow
Andrea Hammel, Aberystwyth University
Sarah Hack, University of Surrey
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Prof George Dickson, Royal Holloway
Prof Ian Gent, University of St Andrews
Andy Russell, Newcastle University
Lorien Jasny, University of Exeter
Alison Penn, The Open University
Martha Radice, Dalhousie University, Canada
Avelie Stuart, University of Exeter
Prof Graham Hutton, University of Nottingham
Gordon Ramsay, University of Nottingham
Emily Senior, Birkbeck, University of London
Neil Penry, Cardiff University
Phoebe Moore, Leicester University
Susana Lorenzo, The University of Manchester
Stephen Creagh, University of Nottingham
Prof Jackie Turton, University of Essex
Lorna Burns, University of St Andrews
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Ramesh Satkurunath, University College London
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Chris Street, University of Huddersfield
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Grad Tax vs Loans: the national accounting differences

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 11/02/2018 - 1:49am in



Accounting is governed by conventions. These conventions have rationales behind them, but they can also be abused or bent out of shape so that the rationale gets obscured or lost. Focusing on rule-following without getting the larger picture clear will lead to fundamental misunderstandings about decisions and options.

In the case of English higher education, these mistakes form part of a narrative insisting that “there is no alternative” (TINA). Politicians appealing to accounting rules might be dogmatists, they might be credulous or they might be opportunists looking for a good way to close down debate. It’s hard to tell at times what’s animating their claims, so it’s easiest just to show how to think about accounting and budgeting for loans otherwise and more constructively.

Let’s take a simplified example.

A government wishes to pay for undergraduate tuition and decides it must have some repayments from graduates to mitigate the cost of the policy. Further, they think non-universal provision like higher education shouldn’t be covered from general taxation, since not everyone gets to benefit.

Let’s say they devise two competing schemes: a fee-loan model and a graduate tax model. Both models require £10bn outlay each year and generate £7bn of repayments over the 20 years after the student leaves university. Both schemes are time-limited so that repayments stop at that point and both use the same repayment threshold to generate returns.

I’m asking you to imagine, for the sake of argument, that we have no differences in outlay and cash coming back in the two schemes (whether in timings or amounts received).

In the long-run, both schemes cost government £3bn in cash terms. But this plays out very differently in the national accounts (which run on a cash in, cash out basis). And this means that the government of the day has a big incentive to prefer loans over a graduate tax.

A graduate tax is treated straightforwardly:

  • the initial £10bn outlay on tuition is current expenditure;
  • cash as and when it comes back in from graduates counts as income;

Expenditure counts against the deficit; income scores as a benefit to it.

You can see the timing implications: in year 1, there is £10bn of expenditure, and much smaller bits of income are scored as a benefit in subsequent years. Providing tuition in this way means a big hit upfront that is gradually mitigated by income.

The policy therefore appears more costly than it is at the initial stage and this impression is compounded by the fact that in year 2 the government has to issue another £10bn to cover the next lot of loans, and so on. It is only two decades and more down the line that total annual income attributed to graduate contributions reaches a level comparable to that £7bn. The deficit measure takes a big hit until then.

Loans are different. Issuing a loan creates a financial asset – formalised by the balance telling the borrower the nominal amount owed to government.

The accounting treatment for “financial transactions” recognises, in a way the graduate tax does not, that there is a future income stream associated with the loan-asset. Accordingly, the £10bn loan outlay is not classified as expenditure.

Neither loan outlay nor loan repayments score in relation to the deficit: loan outlay is not expenditure; loan repayments are not income.

Instead, interest accruing scores as income each year, and the outstanding loan balance written off, when it is written off, scores as capital expenditure.

Loans therefore do score against expenditure, just not today. Cash did go out the door back in year 1, and it had to be covered with borrowing, but that cash outlay was not recorded as expenditure.

In effect, the loss on loans scores as expenditure when it is known, i.e. retrospectively. And that makes some sense. But it also makes loans far more attractive today if you have chosen the deficit as your primary target in the fiscal mandate.

(Note, the sale of students loans adds several layers of complexity and the ONS is still adjudicating how to classify the sale that was conducted before Christmas).

There are a few points of emphasis here:

  • There are no cash implications when loans finally score against expenditure: the relevant transactions have all already happened. There is no fiscal “bomb” or “black hole” resulting from the fact that loans are in play.
    When write-offs score, it is just a recognition of the difference between outlay and repayments in cash terms. It is not equivalent to being presented with a bill (finally!) that has to be paid.
    I predict that, when the first significant loan write-offs come through in the 2040s, politicians will switch to a deficit measure based on the current balance (where no capital expenditure appears).
  • The main fiscal and budgetary action with loans today happens elsewhere. In national accounts, you have to look at cashflows and how these affect public debt without having been recognised in the deficit. Loans are not “off-balance-sheet” – they are assets owned by government. It is just that the cash used to create them is not recognised as current spending.
    Better still, you can look at what happens in departmental accounts, which is where budgetary control happens through the RAB allocation and charge, where projected long-run costs are recognised today.

In my example, the cashflows and costs of loan ad graduate tax were imagined to be exactly the same. The appeal of a loan over a graduate tax is obvious.  A loan is better able to recognise formally the promissory structure of the deal between student/graduate and government and so makes the headline fiscal statistics look much better in the short term.

The different impacts of loans on the deficit is what made the switch to loans very appealing in the early days of austerity.  The tendency of recent governments has been to target the deficit over the short-run (a particular headline measure is chosen) and to fix an overall expenditure envelope before considering the pros and cons of different policy decisions. This contributes to the idea that public spending is  a zero sum game where switching away from loans automatically entails cuts to spending elsewhere.

But misplaced deficit targetry clouds the policy options available. Nothing from the accounting per se prevents the government from choosing a graduate tax, except its fixed thinking, which equates a lower deficit to better fiscal position, and misplaced ideas about the constraints on public funds.

That loan outlay is not classed as spending or expenditure at the time of issue explains much of their appeal, but it doesn’t settle policy questions in their favour.  In short, their advantage appears to be presentational: the form and timing of cost recognition. Nothing prevents a government from choosing to run a larger deficit today because it believes it will have higher tax revenues later. You can invest for growth and you can do so without solely relying on financial transactions.

There are other reasons to be less keen on a graduate tax, including the difficulties of defining a graduate and the problem of concurrent repayment of maintenance loans. Chiefly though, a graduate tax cannot be levied on graduates who leave the UK, whereas a loan can (in principle) be pursued abroad.

On the flipside, the graduate tax involves no debt and no interest. And that makes them a popular solution with some politicians. But you’d still be taking the equivalent of repayments from graduates, with the same impact on their disposable income.


A supplementary note on Write-offs

It’s also important not to get confused by write-offs in the manner of, for example, Peter Hain and John Denham. Write-offs tell you something about where the share of costs falls (on the borrower or on public finances); they don’t tell you what the money was spent on or whether it was productive or not.

The following comparison (which Hain attributes to Denham) makes no sense:

“[Denham] has estimated that English taxpayers spend £6 on debt cancellation for every £1 on teaching students.”

The loans were used to pay tuition fees and to support with living costs. They were the means of providing funds, not something that absorbed the funds. That there is a write-off (‘debt cancellation’) tells you the government will have picked up that part of the tab (and so spent more on tuition than claimed by Denham and Hain).

If you loaned £6bn to cover tuition, and repayments were £3bn less than outlay, the £6bn spent was split between individual and government. Moreover that £3bn write-off was what the “taxpayer” spent on tuition.

Commentators frequently forget that lowering write-offs might mean you made individuals repay more. But if it results from lending less, then you might end up spending less overall on HE. (And this latter outcome is what universities fear will result from the current review of HE funding).


When a loss is not a loss (4 of 5)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 05/01/2018 - 2:35am in



The government would like to have the recent securitisation of student loans and the transfer of their ownership to Income Contingent Student Loans 1 (2002-2006) Plc classified as a sale that achieved market price without any implicit subsidy or support for the sale process, have ICSL1 classified as a private sector body independent of government, and thereby have the relevant transactions recorded in the national accounts as a ‘revaluation’. This would avoid any of the transactions recorded as income and expenditure and thereby avoid recording losses against the deficit, the headline measure capturing the difference between the two and the focus of the government’s fiscal mandate.

By losses here we mean two aspects – whether the asset was sold for less than it’s worth and what the decision to issue loans (that were later sold) cost, i.e. the cost of the policy overall. While a ‘revaluation’ might give you some truth about the first of those (the market told you the loans were worth less than you thought), it ignores the historic aspect: you would not be able to use income and expenditure to capture what’s going on with loans as a policy. If the sale precipitates future anticipated write-offs, then losses associated with the original policy never show up in the deficit.

This is pretty attractive to government and could be seen as a driving factor behind the sale. As we will see a loss-making loan that is sold at further loss would not be recognised. But there is a broader problem with income contingent loans. They don’t fit the conventions governing “financial transactions” – as such, the Office for National Statistics should now be reviewing more broadly what is transpiring with pre- and post-2012 loans.

Although government officials insist that they have not chosen the accounting conventions in use, the current treatment of financial transactions was not designed for loans with such long lifetimes, such large balances or with such large subsidies or losses built in. ICR loans have been crowbarred into place and a fundamental review is now overdue.

As with company accounts, you can look at the cashflow, the balance sheet and the income/expenditure statement to get an overall sense of the UK’s fiscal position. When writing about student loans I have tended to focus on the cashflows and the impact on the balance sheet as it is relatively straightforward.

The problems arise when it comes to determining what counts as income or expenditure for loans, and thereby what impact policy has upon the deficit.

The government loans money to students (cash outlay) and collects repayments from borrowers (cash receipts). Currently, annual loan issuance is about £15billion and annual repayments from all previous borrowers about £2.5bn. The Treasury elects to fund the shortfall between the two by issuing gilts. This form of borrowing adds to the nation’s stock of debt. Although the balance sheet has had added assets (new loans issued) and a liabilities (new gilts issued), only the latter is captured in the headline measure of Public Sector Net Debt. One presentational reason for preferring to sell student loans, it that the cash generated can be used to offset liabilities (or reduce the need for new borrowing) and so lower PSND.

The manner in which a sale impacts on the balance sheet and cashflow is clear. Cash is received in return for transferring ownership of the assets (moving them off the public balance sheet). There’s no problem there, but that’s not where the focus is. The government asks the public to judge its economic competence on reducing the deficit. There is a huge presentational gain from keeping as much out of income and expenditure as possible. This leads us to the problem: we should want the accounts to capture the proper impact of decisions.

As things currently stand, outlay on student loans – the lending – does not count as expenditure; nor do repayments count as income. (National accounts are run on a cash in, cash out basis. The cash value of transactions is recorded when they occur. None of this discussion applies to departmental accounts, which are accruals).

Ignoring outlay and repayments, income and expenditure deals with only write-offs and interest. Write-offs, when they occur, count as capital expenditure using the face value of the balances expunged, while interest accruing annually counts as income.

The latter in particular seems odd. Income accruing is income receivable, not income received, which would be repayments and so is excluded. That is, interest is only what is accumulating against outstanding balances.

This works for most financial assets, because there is a basic accounting identity at work.

In cash terms,

Loan Outlay + Interest Accrued = Repayments + Outstanding Balance

Through a bit of jiggery-pokery that means that

Loan Outlay – Repayments = Outstanding Balance – Interest Accrued

Either side of the second equation can be used as a definition of profit/loss. If Interest Accruing scores as income and Balances written off as expenditure, then the loss or gain on issuing loans is effectively captured in the deficit by the time the accounts are closed. (Note that the right-hand side of the equation is what you get with “financial transactions”, the left-hand side of the equation is what you get with graduate or general taxation.)

For normal loans, interest is repaid as it arises and it is recorded as income; there are no planned write-offs; if all goes well that financial transaction treatment accurately captures the gains made from issuing a loan.

The same cannot be said of income contingent loans with loss exemplified through large, planned subsidies when accounts are closed and where interest accruing against the balance may never be paid.

You can see the effects. Interest accruing is recorded as income every year. This flatters the income/expenditure statement until the policy write-offs occur decades in the future.

That is, as things currently stand (and in the absence of a concerted sale policy), we will start to see large write-offs score as expenditure after the mid-2030’s. These hits will relate to policy decisions made decades before. This does seem ridiculous: the current deficit simply doesn’t capture the impact of issuing tens of billions of student loans today.

You might expect a sale to clarify things. We know that student loans are offered on soft terms and make a loss for government. This is accurately captured in departmental accounts. A sale precipitates that loss – crystallises it today – and possibly adds additional losses if the loans are sold for less than the accounts say they are worth. An accounting treatment consistent with what was outlined above would set the price received against the balances written off and determine an appropriate expenditure mark. That is, if you raise £1.7bn from balances of £3.7bn then you would expect capital expenditure to take a £2bn hit.

Something akin to that would result were the ONS to classify the sale as a “capital transfer”. The government doesn’t want this and instead wants the transaction to be classified as a “revaluation” – the sale shows that the loans were really worth £1.7bn. That might or might not be the case, but such an interpretation loses the connection to the fundamental accounting identity that allows the overall cost of HE policy to be recognised, albeit imperfectly in very attenuated fashion.

What worries people about the ‘revaluation’ classification is that any losses on loans as a policy would no longer show up anywhere in expenditure. A fundamental aspect of double-entry bookkeeping would have been lost.

You could issue £10bn of loans in the expectation that you would get £8bn in return, but avoid recognising that £2bn loss by selling on the loans. As long as the sale is classified as ‘revaluation’, outlay, repayments and price received would never appear in income and expenditure and nor would any equivalents. You would have no record in income and expenditure of the difference between loan value and price received and no record of the cost of HE policy. A generalised loan policy would evaporate the cost of HE leaving nothing in the deficit, but interest accruing as income.

Only the “capital transfer” treatment, would keep this relation to losses.

Whatever the Manual of Government Deficit and Debt allows you to conclude about the sale, trying to shoehorn ICR loans into these existing treatments needs its own revaluation. What we have is a mess.

Whatever you think about accounting, it should capture the full fiscal impact of policy decisions. The ONS needs to review the accounting treatment for ICR loans, not simply decide how to classify the sale.

Was it a sale? ONS decisions (3 of 5)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 03/01/2018 - 9:11pm in


Deficit, eu

In order for the securitisation to be classified as a sale, the government needs to have shed all risk associated with student loan repayments.

Transferring those risks to the private sector required all of the junior tranches to be sold. Did the government shift the risk off its books by selling unrated bonds very cheaply? That’s a good question and one that’s hard to answer given that there was no market price in these assets – either the loans or the securities – beforehand.

The Manual of Government Deficit and Debt, is the EU guide to the relevant national accounting. Its section on securitisation contains the following paragraphs, which the government endorses:

V. “The sale of a financial asset to the securitisation entity will not affect the government net lending/borrowing.”

V. “In national accounts, the disposal of assets should be recorded at the market price that prevails at the time the transaction takes place. It is generally the observed sale price, the price agreed in the contract. However, if there is evidence that the observed sale price is lower than the market value it may indicate that the operation is not carried out on a pure commercial basis and that there is an implicit support of the securitisation entity. In such a case, it is necessary to record a capital transfer from government to make up the difference between the observed price and the market value as the sale is recorded at market price in national accounts”

The “securitisation entity” here is the special purpose vehicle that will take ownership of the loans. In this case, Income Contingent Student Loans 1 (2002-2006) Plc. Was there “implicit support” for the securitisation entity and indeed the process of securitisation? Whether there was or not determines whether the sale is categorised as a ‘revaluation’ or a ‘capital transfer’. The government would far prefer the former as it would mean that any losses associated with student loans and the sale would have no impact on the deficit.

A full sale and transfer of the asset to the private sector also requires that the special purpose entity holding the loan accounts be independent of government. (Although the securities can be traded, the underlying loans are not being sold, but transferred to the SPE.)

This means there are two related issues that are in the purview of the Office for National Statistics.

  • Were the loans sold at market price?
  • Is Income Contingent Student Loans 1 (2002-2006) Plc sufficiently independent of government?

The next paragraph in the MGDD explains:

V. “If there is no obvious market price for specific assets, then, in order for an arrangement to be recorded as a sale, there should be a process by independent bodies to determine an equivalent market price, on the basis of the usual valuation methods used in business areas. The absence of such a process could be interpreted as a lack of autonomy of the securitisation entity, such that it should be classified to government.
(my emphasis in bold)

No independent body, as far as I am aware, has been involved in the sale process. The government would argue that the prices achieved through the securitisation were equivalent to market prices: there is only a market as a result of the securitisation. But the final sentence points to the general issue for the ONS to address.

Even if it is agreed that a market price was achieved, there is a general question about the status of the Special Purpose Entity that now owns the loans. It has to be independent to be taken off the public books. If its operations are circumscribed by government, then it should probably be classified to government.

Here is how the Manual characterises the requisite autonomy:

V. “… the SPE should have autonomy of decision in respect of the management of the debt securities that it issues: indicators of this are issuance rhythm, debt management, repayment strategy, etc. It should be clear that the SPE does not act on behalf of government. It should also have complete autonomy concerning the management and disposal of its assets. Otherwise the SPE should not be recorded as separate institutional unit.”
(my emphasis in italics)

Most of the evidence available suggests that Income Contingent Student Loans 1 (2002-2006) Plc could be seen to lack the requisite autonomy.

  • The SPE has not conducted the securitisation, it was set up subsequent to it – indeed its title indicates that a separate company will be set up for each sale process;
  • Under the terms of the 2008 Sale of Student Loans Act, the SPE cannot sell on the loans without government permission: it cannot dispose of its assets;
  • HMRC and the SLC will continue to administer loan collections on behalf of the SPE and purchasers;
  • DfE remains the ‘Master Servicer’ – with responsibility for transferring repayments to the SPE – and the government has undertaken various warranties and contingent liabilities as part of the sale process (see Part 5).

ONS hasn’t reached a decision yet on these classification issues. I will update this post when it does.

The next post will look at the resulting accounting issues. If the sale is classified as a capital transfer or the SPE is deemed not to be independent, then the government will probably have to book a £2bn hit to expenditure and the deficit: the difference between the £1.7bn raised and the £3.7bn face value of the loans transferred.

How Progressives Can Win Big: Casting out the Spirit of Defeatism, One Keystroke at a Time

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 11/12/2017 - 12:44pm in

By Steve Grumbine.


Progressives Trigger warning: Compassion required. When is the last time you heard Greens, Berniecrats or Indie voters not acknowledge the distinct and pressing need for election reform, campaign finance reform, voting reform? More to the point, when haven’t they mentioned unleashing 3rd parties from the fringe of irrelevancy and up onto the debate stage?

That is mostly what is talked about, simply because it is low hanging fruit.

It has long been known that our electoral system and methods of voting are corrupt, untrustworthy, and easily manipulated by less than savvy politicians, state actors, and hackers alike. The answers to many of these issues is the same answer that we would need to push for any progressive reforms to take place in America: namely, we need enlightened, fiery, peaceful, and committed activists to propel a movement and ensure that the people rise, face their oppressors, and unify to demand that their needs be met.

What is not as well-known, however, is how a movement, the government, and taxes work together to bring about massive changes in programs, new spending, and the always scary “National Debt” (should be “National Assets”, but I will speak to that later). In fact, this subject is so poorly understood by many well-meaning people on all sides of the aisle that these issues are the most important we face as a nation. Until we understand them and have the confidence and precision necessary to destroy the myths and legends we have substituted in the absence of truth and knowledge, it must remain front and center to the movement.

Progressives, like most Americans, are almost religiously attached to the terms “the taxpayer dollar,” and the idea that their “hard earned tax dollars” are being misappropriated. Often, the most difficult pill for people to swallow is the concept that our Federal Government is self-funding and creates the very money it “spends”. It isn’t spending your tax dollars at all. To demonstrate this, consider this simplified flow chart:


These truths bring on even more hand wringing, because to the average voter they raise the issue of where taxes, tax revenue, government borrowing, and the misleading idea of the “National Debt” (which is nothing more than the sum of every single not yet taxed federal high-powered dollar in existence) fit into the federal spending picture. The answer is that they really don’t.

A terrible deception has been perpetrated on the American people. We have been led to believe that the US borrows its own currency from foreign nations, that the money gathered from borrowing and collected from taxing funds federal spending. We have also been led to believe that gold is somehow the only real currency, that somehow our nation is broke because we don’t own much gold compared to the money we create, and that we are on the precipice of some massive collapse, etc. because of that shortage of gold.

The American people have been taught single entry accounting instead of Generally Accepted Accounting Practices, or GAAP-approved double entry accounting, where every single asset has a corresponding liability; which means that every single dollar has a corresponding legal commitment. Every single dollar by accounting identity is nothing more than a tax credit waiting to be extinguished.  Sadly, many only see the government, the actual dollar creator, as having debt; that it has liabilities, not that we the people have assets; assets that we need more and more of as time goes on, to achieve any semblance of personal freedom and relative security from harm.

In other words, at the Federal level it is neither your tax dollars nor the dollars collected from sales of Treasury debt instruments that are spent. Every single dollar the Federal Government spends is new money.

Every dollar is keystroked into existence. Every single one of them. Which brings up the next question: “Where do our hard-earned tax dollars and borrowed dollars go if, in fact, they do not pay for spending on roads, schools, bombs and propaganda?” We already know the answer. They are destroyed by the Federal Reserve when they mark down the Treasury’s accounts.

In Professor Stephanie Kelton’s article in the LA Times “Congress can give every American a pony (if it breeds enough ponies)” (which you can find here ) She states quite plainly:

“Whoa, cowboy! Are you telling me that the government can just make money appear out of nowhere, like magic? Absolutely. Congress has special powers: It’s the patent-holder on the U.S. dollar. No one else is legally allowed to create it. This means that Congress can always afford the pony because it can always create the money to pay for it.”

That alone should raise eyebrows and cause you to reconsider a great many things you may have once thought. It will possibly cause you to fall back to old, neoclassical text book understandings as well, which she deftly anticipates and answers with:

“Now, that doesn’t mean the government can buy absolutely anything it wants in absolutely any quantity at absolutely any speed. (Say, a pony for each of the 320 million men, women and children in the United States, by tomorrow.) That’s because our economy has internal limits. If the government tries to buy too much of something, it will drive up prices as the economy struggles to keep up with the demand. Inflation can spiral out of control. There are plenty of ways for the government to get a handle on inflation, though. For example, it can take money out of the economy through taxation.”

And there it is. The limitation everyone is wondering about. Where is the spending limit?

When we run out of real resources. Not pieces of paper or keystrokes. Real resources.

To compound your bewilderment, would it stretch your credulity too much to say that the birth of a dollar is congressional spending and the death of a dollar is when it is received as a tax payment, or in return for a Treasury debt instrument, and deleted? Would that make your head explode? Let the explosions begin, because that is exactly what happens.

Money is a temporary thing. Even in the old days we heard so many wax poetically about how they took wheelbarrows of government — and bank – printed IOUs to the burn pile, and set the dollar funeral pyre ablaze.  

In the same LA Times piece, Professor Kelton goes on to say:

“Since none of us learned any differently, most of us accept the idea that taxes and borrowing precede spending – TABS. And because the government has to “find the money” before it can spend in this sequence, everyone wants to know who’s picking up the tab.

There’s just one catch. The big secret in Washington is that the federal government abandoned TABS back when it dropped the gold standard. Here’s how things really work:

  1. Congress approves the spending and the money gets spent (S)
  2. Government collects some of that money in the form of taxes (T)
  3. If 1 > 2, Treasury allows the difference to be swapped for government bonds (B)

In other words, the government spends money and then collects some money back as people pay their taxes and buy bonds. Spending precedes taxing and borrowing – STAB. It takes votes and vocal interest groups, not tax revenue, to start the ball rolling.”

Let’s be clear, we are not talking about the Hobbit or Lord of the Rings. We are not talking about Gandalf the Grey or Bilbo Baggins. We are not referencing “my precious!”. It’s not gold, or some other commodity people like to hold, taste and smell. It is simply a tally. Yet somehow, we have convinced ourselves that there is a scarcity of dollars, when it is the resources that are scarce. We have created what Attorney Steven Larchuk calls a “Dollar Famine”.

To quote Warren Mosler in his must-read book “The 7 Deadly Innocent Frauds of Economic Policy” (you can download a free copy right here) he states:

“Next question: “So how does government spend when they never actually have anything to spend?”

Good question! Let’s now take a look at the process of how government spends.

Imagine you are expecting your $1,000 social security payment to hit your bank account which already has $500 in it, and you are watching your account on your computer screen. You are about to see how government spends without having anything to spend.

Presto! Suddenly your account statement that read $500 now reads $1,500. What did the government do to give you that money? It simply changed the number in your bank account from 500 to 1,500. It added a ‘1’ and a comma. That’s all.”

Keystrokes. Is it becoming clearer? Let’s go further for good measure. Mosler continues:

“It didn’t take a gold coin and hammer it into its computer. All it did was change a number in your bank account. It does this by making entries into its own spread sheet which is connected to the banking systems spreadsheets.

Government spending is all done by data entry on its own spread sheet we can call ‘The US dollar monetary system’.

There is no such thing as having to ‘get’ taxes or borrow to make a spreadsheet entry that we call ‘spending’. Computer data doesn’t come from anywhere. Everyone knows that!”

So why do we allow people to tell us otherwise? Maybe it is too abstract. And on cue, Mosler explains this phenomenon via a sports analogy for those who are not comfortable with the straight economic narrative:

“Where else do we see this happen? Your team kicks a field goal and on the scoreboard the score changes from, say, 7 point to 10 points. Does anyone wonder where the stadium got those three points? Of course not! Or you knock down 5 pins at the bowling alley and your score goes from 10 to 15. Do you worry about where the bowling alley got those points? Do you think all bowling alleys and football stadiums should have a ‘reserve of points’ in a ‘lock box’ to make sure you can get the points you have scored? Of course not! And if the bowling alley discovers you ‘foot faulted’ and takes your score back down by 5 points does the bowling alley now have more score to give out? Of course not!

We all know how ‘data entry’ works, but somehow this has gotten all turned around backwards by our politicians, media, and most all of the prominent mainstream economists.”

Ouch! Mosler pointed out the obvious, the propaganda machine has polluted our understanding. So how is this done in economic language? Let’s let Warren finish the thought:

“When the federal government spends the funds don’t ‘come from’ anywhere any more than the points ‘come from’ somewhere at the football stadium or the bowling alley.

Nor does collecting taxes (or borrowing) somehow increase the government’s ‘hoard of funds’ available for spending.

In fact, the people at the US Treasury who actually spend the money (by changing numbers on bank accounts up) don’t even have the phone numbers of the people at the IRS who collect taxes (they change the numbers on bank accounts down), or the other people at the US Treasury who do the ‘borrowing’ (issue the Treasury securities). If it mattered at all how much was taxed or borrowed to be able to spend, you’d think they’d at least know each other’s phone numbers! Clearly, it doesn’t matter for their purposes.”

So why do progressives allow the narrative that the nation has run out of points deter us from demanding we leverage our resources to gain points, to win the game of life, and have a robust New Deal: Green Energy, Infrastructure, free college, student debt eradication, healthcare as a right, a federal job guarantee for those who want work and expanded social security for those who do not want to or cannot work?

How has a movement so full of “revolutionaries” proved to be so “full of it” believing that we must take points away from the 99% to achieve that which the federal government creates readily, when people do something worth compensating? Why does the narrative that the nation is “broke” resonate with progressives? Why do they allow this narrative to sideline the entire movement?

I believe it is because progressives are beaten down. Many have forgotten what prosperity for all looks like or sounds like. Many are so financially broke and spiritually broken that the idea of hope seems like gas lighting. It feels like abuse. It crosses the realm of incredulity and forces people into that safe space of defeatism.

If they firmly reject hope, then they can at least predict failure, be correct and feel victorious in self-defeating apathy. If the system is rigged; if the politicians are all bought off; if the voting machines are hacked; if the deep state controls everything; then we think we are too weak to unite and stand up and demand economic justice, equality, a clean environment, a guaranteed job, healthcare and security and then we have a bad guy to blame.

Then we can sit at our computers, toss negative comments around social media, express our uninformed and uninspired defeatism about the system, and proclaim it is truth by ensuring it is a self-fulfilling prophecy about which we can be self-congratulatory in our 20/20 foresight as we perform the “progressive give-up strategy”. Or, if we want to achieve a Green New Deal, then in a radical departure from the norm we can own our power; we can embrace macroeconomic reality through the lens of a monetarily sovereign nation with a free floating, non-convertible fiat currency and truly achieve the progressive prosperity we all deserve.

The choice is ours. It is in our hands.


**For more of Steve’s work check out Real Progressives on Facebook or Twitter

The post How Progressives Can Win Big: Casting out the Spirit of Defeatism, One Keystroke at a Time appeared first on The Minskys.

The UK's political crisis

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 28/09/2017 - 7:20am in

On the evening of Friday, September 22nd, the credit ratings agency Moody's downgraded the UK's credit rating. Admittedly, it was only by one notch. But coming as it did hard on the heels of Theresa May's grand speechin Florence, it was a shattering blow. 

Credit ratings agencies lost much of their lustre in the financial crisis of 2008, when they were revealed to have been complicit in the mispricing of complex financial derivatives – the “toxic waste” that brought down some of the world’s largest financial institutions. So it is tempting to dismiss Moody’s action as pointless and its analysis as economically illiterate. I confess that I have done so myself, in the past. But this time, Moody’s is on the money. It tells a story of a tragically weakened government struggling with a legacy of policy errors from previous governments as well as the growing likelihood of a chaotic and potentially disastrous Brexit.

Moody’s gives two main reasons for the downgrade:

  1. The outlook for the UK's public finances has weakened significantly since the negative outlook on the Aa1 rating was assigned, with the government's fiscal consolidation plans increasingly in question and the debt burden expected to continue to rise;
  2. Fiscal pressures will be exacerbated by the erosion of the UK's medium-term economic strength that is likely to result from the manner of its departure from the European Union (EU), and by the increasingly apparent challenges to policy-making given the complexity of Brexit negotiations and associated domestic political dynamics.

Unsurprisingly, most commentary has focused on the second of these, and tended to ignore or downplay the first. But in fact the two are inextricably linked.

According to the ONS, the UK’s fiscal deficit currently stands at 2.3% of GDP and its public debt (excluding publicly-owned banks) at 88% of GDP.  George Osborne had planned to eliminate the deficit completely by 2020 and run an absolute surplus thereafter to reduce public debt over time. Of course, ratios to GDP depend as much on the path of the denominator as the numerator: even if the absolute amount borrowed reduces, debt and deficits can still rise in relation to GDP if GDP falls. But until recently, GDP forecasts were buoyant: notwithstanding the Brexit vote, the UK economy was still expected to turn in GDP growth of 2% or more.

Those forecasts have now degenerated substantially. This is from the second section of Moody’s analysis:

Growth has slowed in recent months, with average quarterly growth of just 0.26% in the first two quarters, versus an average of 0.6% over the 2014-2016 period. Private consumption has slowed sharply and business investment has been weak since 2016, most likely linked to the Brexit-related uncertainty. While future years may see some recovery, Moody's expects growth of just 1% in 2018 following 1.5% this year and 2.25% on average in recent years.

Ouch. And no, this is not merely a minor setback which Britain will quickly transcend on its path to the "sunny uplands":

More importantly for the UK's credit profile, Moody's does not expect growth to recover to its historic trend rate over the coming years.

Brexit will make Britain poorer. Permanently.

Clearly, if GDP is not going to rise as much as previously expected, then debt and deficits will not fall as fast in relation to GDP as previously expected, even if government spending and revenues remain broadly the same. Ceteris paribus, therefore, Brexit thus threatens the UK’s fiscal position

The disastrous 2017 election further weakens the UK's fiscal position:

…..the government has yielded to pressure and raised spending in several areas, including for health and adult social care. It also agreed to above-budget pay increases for some public sector workers. While these additional expenditures will be funded out of current budgets, the pressure to continue to increase spending in the coming years is likely to remain high, in particular on health care and the public sector wage bill.

In addition, in order to secure a working parliamentary majority, the new government agreed a 'confidence and supply' arrangement that increases public spending by GBP1 billion for Northern Ireland. It also abandoned a pre-election promise to review the costly so-called "triple lock" on state pensions after 2020. Overall, Moody's expects spending to be significantly higher than under the government's current budgetary plans and higher than the rating agency expected when the negative outlook was assigned in June 2016.

The minority Conservative government is breaking spending limits all over the place in order to hold on to power. I criticised George Osborne's slash and burn approach to government finances, but this is no better. Giving in to spending demands to prevent a backbench revolt is hardly a responsible approach to managing public finances. It smacks rather of desperation. Theresa May, it seems, will do “whatever it takes” to prevent Jeremy Corbyn from becoming Prime Minister.

Government revenue, too, is compromised by the Tories’ desperation to keep Labour out:

At the same time, revenues are unlikely to compensate for higher spending. Earlier this year, the government abandoned a planned increase in national insurance contributions for the self-employed. Instead, the government has become reliant on highly uncertain revenue gains from tackling tax avoidance to fund tax cuts....

No government in history has ever managed to repair the fiscal finances by clamping down on tax avoidance. This is not a reason not to do it, of course. But it is a reason not to rely on it.

Adding in the effect of a weak government being forced to increase spending and failing to raise the anticipated revenues, Moody’s anticipates that the deficit will remain at or above 3% in the coming years. Debt/GDP will continue to rise, peaking at 93% in 2019.

All in all, this adds up to a poor economic outlook and worsening fiscal finances. This is the reason for the downgrade. To be sure, the current fiscal forecasts are at least realistic, unlike Osborne’s. But as Moody’s says, repeated revisions to government targets don’t exactly inspire confidence.

So far, so meh. Then Moody’s drops this bombshell:

Moody's is no longer confident that the UK government will be able to secure a replacement free trade agreement with the EU which substantially mitigates the negative economic impact of Brexit.

Wait, haven’t we always known this?

Apparently not. Moody’s seems to have had its head in the sand. Belatedly, it recognises that the obstacles the UK government set up from the start – such as refusing to accept the jurisdiction of the ECJ – have rendered a new free trade agreement all but impossible. The window of opportunity is closing rapidly, there is as yet no substantive agreement on any of the EU’s showstoppers, and therefore little prospect of significant progress on trade before the UK leaves the EU in March 2019.

But even if trade were up for discussion, there is no way any new agreement could come close to matching what the UK currently has as a full EU member. According to Moody’s, Brexit “would likely impose additional costs, raise the regulatory and administrative burden on UK businesses and put at risk the close-knit supply chains that link the UK and the EU.” The UK’s vital services sector is particularly at risk: Moody’s warns that “differences of outlook between the UK and the EU suggest that the most likely outcome is now a rather more limited free trade agreement which may exclude services.”

Putting it all together, Moody’s concludes:

Aside from the direct impact on the UK's credit profile, weakening growth prospects are likely to exacerbate the government's evident fiscal challenges. And this is likely to be happening during a period in which policymakers will be increasingly distracted by the twin challenges of sustaining a domestic political consensus on how to operationalise Brexit and reaching agreement with EU counterparts.

UK policymakers will spend all their time working out how to implement a policy that will make Britain considerably poorer and substantially weaken its fiscal finances. Lovely.

Of course, the UK government hit back. A spokesman from the Treasury, quoted in the Financial Times, said this:

The assessments made about Brexit in this report are outdated. The prime minister has just set out an ambitious vision for the UK’s future relationship with the EU, making clear that both sides will benefit from a new and unique partnership.

So Theresa May's grand aria will make all the difference. Unfortunately the head of sovereign ratings at Moody's doesn't think so. "I've read the speech and it doesn't change our view at all", he said on the BBC's Today programme, downgrading Mrs. May's credibility to junk.

I criticise Mrs. May's government, but I am equally critical of a Labour party whose tax and spending plans are every bit as unrealistic as those of the desperate Tories. Brexit will make Britain poorer. High wages, generous pensions, universal healthcare and quality social care are the luxuries of rich nations. Even without Brexit, these create a substantial burden for younger generations, including the children and the unborn who have no voice in this debate. The impoverished outlook for Britain may render them unaffordable. But neither party as yet shows any willingness to admit that the prosperity they have promised the British people is completely incompatible with any sort of Brexit. The British people are being systematically deceived by blue and red politicians alike.

Ever since the referendum, the UK has been engulfed in a deep political crisis. Indeed, it started long before the referendum. It is a crisis of lies and dishonesty which is rapidly destroying all trust in the political establishment.

Moody's says (I paraphrase), "Thank goodness for the UK's institutions, because its politicians can't be trusted." The downgrade itself does not matter, and I would be the first to dismiss calls for further austerity measures to bring the deficit and debt down in relation to GDP. We know now, all too well, how disastrous fiscal consolidation can be in a weakening economy. But the picture that Moody's paints, of a weak and untrustworthy political establishment and an economy entirely dependent on the soundness of institutions that are increasingly under political pressure, is shocking. This, even more than Brexit, threatens the future of the UK.

Where have the honest and courageous politicians gone? Whatever happened to doing the right thing, not merely the most popular thing? Who will speak up to avert the coming disaster?

The Lord said, “If I find fifty righteous people in the city of Sodom, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”27Then Abraham spoke up again: “Now that I have been so bold as to speak to the Lord, though I am nothing but dust and ashes, 28what if the number of the righteous is five less than fifty? Will you destroy the whole city for lack of five people?”“If I find forty-five there,” he said, “I will not destroy it.”29Once again he spoke to him, “What if only forty are found there?”He said, “For the sake of forty, I will not do it.”30Then he said, “May the Lord not be angry, but let me speak. What if only thirty can be found there?”He answered, “I will not do it if I find thirty there.”31Abraham said, “Now that I have been so bold as to speak to the Lord, what if only twenty can be found there?”He said, “For the sake of twenty, I will not destroy it.”32Then he said, “May the Lord not be angry, but let me speak just once more. What if only ten can be found there?”He answered, “For the sake of ten, I will not destroy it.”

- Genesis 18: 26-32

Cartoon: Deficit memories

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 25/04/2017 - 11:50pm in


Budget, Deficit, Taxes

This is a cartoon flashback that I thought bore repeating as we learn about the Trump tax plan. It doesn’t matter how how fiscally prudent Democrats manage to be, or how badly Republicans bust budgets; the narrative never changes. 

Follow Jen on Twitter at @JenSorensen