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Philosophy’s Happiness Literature: More of It, More Empirical (guest post)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 22/09/2022 - 10:43pm in

In the following guest post, Michael Prinzing (Yale) discusses trends in philosophical discussions of happiness and well-being.

Philosophy’s Happiness Literature: More of It, More Empirical
by Michael Prinzing

Something seems to be happening in the philosophy of happiness and well-being. Philosophers seem increasingly interested in what’s going on in the social and health sciences. Some philosophers are even conducting empirical research of their own. But is this a widespread phenomenon, or just a small subset of a sub-discipline? 

To investigate this question, I conducted a bibliometric analysis of articles published in the 50 most-cited philosophy journals on the topics of happiness, well-being, and the good life. (For those interested, I describe my methods at the bottom. The data and R code are available here.) 

Obviously, in the past 50 years or so, there has been a general trend of increasing publication volume—and not just in philosophy. That trend is illustrated by the blue line in the figure below. The blue line (scale on the right) represents the total number of papers published in the top 50 philosophy journals since the mid-20th century. Although growth leveled off a little between 1980 and 2000, there appears to have been fairly steady growth since the 1950’s. 

Things look very different when we turn to papers on happiness, well-being, and the good life. That trend is illustrated by the black line (scale on the left). There we see no growth at all until the turn of the millennium. At that point, the number of publications skyrocketed. Hence, this sub-discipline does seem to stand out from the general trend in philosophy. Moreover, whatever is going on in the philosophy of happiness and well-being, it seems to have started around the turn of the millennium. It’s possible that this has something to do with the rise of “Positive Psychology,” which also emerged at that time. That field of psychological research may have provided fertile ground for philosophers interested in similar topics. Or, perhaps some broader societal trend led to increased interest in happiness and well-being among both philosophers and psychologists.

The second figure, below, illustrates the proportion of papers on happiness and well-being that cited scientific sources. Since there were so few publications per year during the 20th century, I grouped the papers by decade. Prior to the 1980’s, not a single paper cited any scientific sources. In the 1980’s and 90’s, about 10-15% of papers did so. In the 2000’s the proportion jumped to about 35%, and since 2010 papers citing scientific sources constitute the majority.

Overall, then, it seems that not only have happiness, well-being, and the good life become much more popular topics of philosophical discussion, that discussion is increasingly intertwined with empirical research. Indeed, papers in the philosophy of happiness and well-being that don’t engage with scientific research are now in the minority.

Methods

Journal Citation Reports, a database of academic journals, includes 320 journals classified as philosophy journals. I selected the 50 most-cited of these and queried Web of Science for all the articles from those journals that included the terms happiness, well-being (or wellbeing), or “the good life” in the title, abstract, or keywords. This yielded 673 records, dating as early as 1947. After removing a duplicate record and non-articles (some records were book reviews, editor’s notes, etc.) there were 521 papers. Collectively, these 521 articles cited 7,389 sources. However, many of these were cited very few times. Only 318 received at least 5 citations. I categorized each of these 318 sources as either scientific or non-scientific, depending on whether the source is dedicated to reporting or reviewing empirical findings. Thus, this definition does not include journals that occasionally publish empirical findings—e.g., Noûs or Synthese. But it does include sources like the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (this was the most-cited scientific source, with 78 citations.) It also includes sources like the American Economic Review, which, though it does not publish novel empirical results, is dedicated to reviewing empirical research. Of the 318 sources, 111 were scientific. 5 could not be categorized because it was impossible to determine the exact source from the abbreviated title given by Web of Science, or whether the source was scientific. These were: P BRIT ACAD, CRITICAL NE IN PRESS, DROP, VALUE ETHICS EC, WELL BEING. I then used this categorization to determine how many scientific sources each of the 521 philosophy papers cited.

How Much Do Philosophers Referee?

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 12/09/2022 - 5:30pm in

Tags 

data, poll, Publishing

Last week, we asked how many journal submissions philosophers in various positions referee each year.

The polls closed over the weekend. 844 people participated. What were the results?

The most popular answer among the respondents who are tenured or tenure-track philosophy professors is that they referee 5 to 8 submissions per year (followed by 1 to 4 submissions, and then 9 to 12). The most popular response from non-tenure-track academic philosophers and those with non-academic positions was 1 to 4 submissions. Among graduate students, the most popular response was 0.

The poll may suffer from defects that hinder its representativeness of the discipline. For example, though the poll was anonymous, those who don’t referee much might have been discouraged from responding, skewing the numbers high. On the other hand, though perhaps less common, there may be some refereeing overachievers out there who were too busy reviewing manuscripts to respond to the poll.

Below are the details. Discussion welcome.

Tenured philosophy professors (n=387):

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  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

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Untenured tenure-track philosophy professors (n=161):

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Untenured tenure-track philosophy professors, how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
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  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

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Non-tenure track philosophy professors, lecturers, instructors, and adjuncts (n=182):

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Non-tenure-track philosophy professors, instructors, lecturers (who are not current graduate students), how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

Philosophy graduate students (n=93):

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  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

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Those with graduate training in philosophy who work outside of academia (n=21):

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  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

How Much Do You Referee?

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 06/09/2022 - 10:30pm in

Tags 

data, Publishing

How many journal submissions do you referee each year?


[Serena Bocchino, “99° (Fever) Hold Me Tight” (detail)]

Following a brief poll and discussion on Twitter posted by Eric Wiland (University of Missouri-St.Louis), I was asked to gather some more information on this. The following is a one-question poll. Please answer only the question directed at persons who have the type of position you have. The surveys will remain open until the weekend, and then we’ll have a post about the results next week. Thank you.

Tenured philosophy professors, answer this one:

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Tenured philosophy professors, how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

Untenured tenure-track philosophy professors, answer this one:

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Untenured tenure-track philosophy professors, how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

Non-tenure track philosophy professors, lecturers, instructors, and adjuncts, answer this one:

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Non-tenure-track philosophy professors, instructors, lecturers (who are not current graduate students), how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

Philosophy graduate students, answer this one:

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Philosophy graduate students, how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
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  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

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Those with graduate training in philosophy who work outside of academia, answer this one:

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Those who have some graduate training in philosophy and a job outside of academia, how many journal submissions do you referee in a year?
  • 0
  • 1-4
  • 5-8
  • 9-12
  • 13-16
  • 17 or more

Vote

Related: A Little Rough Data about Journal Refereeing in Philosophy

Measuring Consensus and Disagreement in Ethics

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 06/09/2022 - 8:00pm in

A pair of philosophers are studying consensus and disagreement among philosophers on ethical issues, as well as consensus and disagreement on such issues between philosophers and the general public.

I have a question about this for you all, but first, these philosophers—Jonathan Spelman (Ohio Northern) and Mark Boespflug (Fort Lewis)—have a message for you. They write:

Consensus and disagreement within the scientific community are epistemically significant. Numerous consensus studies have given us a good sense of what scientists, as a group, think about climate change, and whether it is human-caused.

We speculate that consensus and disagreement are, likewise, epistemically significant in ethics. As a consequence, we think they should be empirically measured. But there is currently little or no empirical data on what philosophers, or ethicists more specifically, think about various ethical issues. We’re also in the dark about how their views might differ from the population at large. It would be valuable, then, to gain a clearer sense of whether and to what extent there are issues upon which ethicists largely converge.

Our goal is to try to answer these questions, but to do that we need your help! We need philosophers—especially ethicists—to complete our survey on a variety of ethical issues. If you are able to spend 15 minutes filling out our survey on a variety of ethical issues, we would greatly appreciate it. And tell your friends! The more data we are able to collect, the better sense we will have for what philosophers and ethicists think about ethical issues.

If you are willing to help us out, you can find the survey here: https://forms.gle/4E1GfhDuC5MFmiEn9.

So go take that survey, and then, if you’re up for it, take up this question:

On what (real world / non-thought-experiment) ethical issue is it the case that both (a) philosophers tend to agree with each other about what to do or what to think about it, and (b) philosophers tend to disagree with non-philosophers about what to do or what to think about it?

 

Blended and Independent Departments of Philosophy

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 02/09/2022 - 10:17pm in

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data

Some universities and colleges have departments just for philosophy (“independent” departments), while others have departments that include philosophy and other disciplines, such as “philosophy and religious studies” or “philosophy and history,” or “humanities” (“blended” departments).

It might be useful to hear more from those at “blended” departments about the advantages and disadvantages of that kind of arrangement. Blended departments may be more common than you think, and restructurings inspired by budgetary needs or the career ambitions of ascending administrators may make them even more so.

A new report from the American Philosophical Association (APA) provides details on the proportions of independent and blended philosophy departments at different types of institutions, and in different parts of the United States.

Among its findings:

  • doctoral universities have the highest percentage of independent philosophy departments (64%)
  • just under half of baccalaureate colleges have an independent philosophy department (49%)
  • one quarter of associate’s colleges have independent philosophy departments (25%)


Percentage of Independent and Blended Departments by Institution Type, from “Report on the Prevalence of Independent Philosophy Departments” by Jaehyun Hong.

Breaking down the data on doctoral universities by Carnegie Classification, the report says:

  • 83% of R1 institutions have independent philosophy departments
  • 64% of R2 institutions have independent philosophy departments
  • 44% of doctoral/professional universities have independent philosophy departments

When it comes to the geographic distribution of department types, the APA report finds that “the Northeast has the highest percentage of academic institutions with an independent philosophy department (53%). The West
follows with 51%. The South has the lowest percentage of institutions with independent departments (34%).”

Here’s a state-level look:

 


Geographic distribution of blended and independent philosophy departments in the U.S., from “Report on the Prevalence of Independent Philosophy Departments” by Jaehyun Hong.

The full report, authored by APA intern Jaehyun Hong with guidance from executive director Amy Ferrer, is available here.

The Philosophy Major Continues to Recover and Diversify in the U.S. (guest post)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 24/08/2022 - 9:22pm in

Tags 

data, Diversity, race, Women

The number of college students graduating with degrees in philosophy continues to increase, as does the gender and racial diversity of this group.

In the following guest post, Eric Schwitzgebel (UC Riverside) shares some of his recent research on diversity in philosophy. A version of this post originally appeared at his blog, The Splintered Mind.


[Lillian Blades – Windows of Reflection]

The Philosophy Major Continues to Recover and Diversify in the U.S.
by Eric Schwitzgebel

The National Center for Education Statistics has released their data on bachelor’s degree completions in the U.S. through the 2019-2020 academic year, and it’s mostly good news for the philosophy major.

Back in 2017, I noticed that the number of students completing philosophy degrees in the U.S. had plummeted sharply between 2010 and 2016, from 9297 in 2009-2010 to 7507 in 2015-2016, a decline of 19% in just six years. The other large humanities majors (history, English, and foreign languages and literatures) saw similar declines in the period.

A couple of years ago, the trend had started to modestly reverse itself — and furthermore the philosophy major appeared to be attracting a higher percentage of women and non-White students than previously. The newest data show those trends continuing.

Methodology: The numbers below are all from the NCES IPEDS database, U.S. only, using CIP classification 38.01 for philosophy majors, including both first and second majors, using the NCES gender and race/ethnicity categories. Each year ends at spring term (thus “2010” refers to the 2009-2010 academic year).

Trend since 2010, total number of philosophy bachelor’s degrees awarded in the U.S.:

2010: 9274
2011: 9298
2012: 9369
2013: 9427
2014: 8823
2015: 8186
2016: 7491
2017: 7575
2018: 7669
2019: 8075
2020: 8195

As you can see, numbers are up about 9% since their nadir in 2016, though still well below their peak in 2011. (The numbers are slightly different from those in my earlier post, presumably to small post-hoc adjustments in the IPEDS dataset.)

One consequence of the decline, I suspect, was on the job market for philosophy professors, which has been weak since the early 2010s. This has been hard especially on newly graduated PhD students in the field. With the major declining so sharply in the period, it’s understandable that administrators wouldn’t prioritize the hiring of new philosophy professors. If numbers continue to rise, the job market might correspondingly recover.

Total degrees awarded across all majors has also continued to rise, and thus in percentage terms, philosophy remains well below its peak of almost 0.5% in the late 2000s and early 2010s — only 0.31% of students, a tiny percentage. Philosophy won’t be overtaking psychology or biology in popularity any time soon. Philosophy majors, you are special!

Back in 2017, I also noticed that, going back to the 1980s, the percentage of philosophy majors who were women had remained entirely within the narrow band of 30-34%, despite an increase in women in the undergraduate population overall. However, in the most recent four years, this percentage rose to 39.4%. [ETA 1:48 p.m.: Since 2001, the overall percentage of women among bachelor’s recipients across all majors has stayed fairly constant at around 57%.] That might not seem like a big change, but given the consistency of the earlier numbers, it’s actually quite remarkable to me. Here’s a zoomed-in graph to give you a sense of it:

The philosophy major is also increasingly racially or ethnically diverse. The percentage of non-Hispanic White students has been falling steadily since NCES began collecting data in 1995, from 81% then to 58% now. Overall, across all majors, 61% percent of bachelor’s degree recipients are non-Hispanic White, so the philosophy major is actually now slightly less non-Hispanic White than average. (All the race/ethnicity figures below exclude “nonresident aliens” and “race/ethnicity unknown”.)

The particular patterns differ by race/ethnic group.

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders constitute a tiny percentage: about 0.2% of degree recipients both in philosophy and overall since the category was introduced in 2011.

American Indian or Alaskan Native is also a tiny percentage, but unfortunately that percentage has been steadily declining since the mid-2000s, and the group is especially underrepresented in philosophy. According to the U.S. Census, about 0.9% of the U.S. population in that age group identifies as non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaskan Native.

The following chart displays trends for the other four racial categories used by the NCES. In 2011, “two or more races” was introduced as a category. Also before 2011, the Asian category included “Pacific Islander”.

As you can see from the chart, the percentage of Hispanic students graduating with philosophy degrees has surged, from 4.3% in 1995 to 14.4% in 2020. This is approximately representative of a similar surge among Hispanic students across all majors, from 4.8% in 1995 to 15.7% in 2020. Multiracial students have also surged, though it’s unclear how much of that surge has to do with changing methodology versus the composition of the student population.

The percentage of philosophy majors identifying as Asian or Black has also increased during the period, but only slowly: From 5.4% and 3.3% respectively in 1995 to 6.8% and 5.6% in 2020. For comparison, across all majors, the numbers rose from 5.4% to 8.1% Asian and 7.6% to 10.2% Black. So, in 2020, Asian and especially Black students are disproportionately underrepresented in the philosophy major. Interestingly, some data from the Higher Education Research Institute suggests that there has been a very recent surge of interest in the philosophy major among Black students just entering college. We’ll see if that plays out among Bachelor’s degree recipients in a few years.

New Data about Philosophy Graduate Programs (guest post)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 22/08/2022 - 10:18pm in

Tags 

data

In the following guest post, Carolyn Dicey Jennings, associate professor of philosophy at UC Merced, shares some new data about graduate programs in philosophy that she and her team at Academic Philosophy Data and Analysis (APDA) have collected and analyzed.

New Data about Philosophy Graduate Programs
by Carolyn Dicey Jennings

Academic Philosophy Data and Analysis (APDA) has been running in some form since late 2011. It collects and analyzes data about academic philosophy, with a special focus on PhD graduates and their employment outcomes. Its blog, which has been running since 2017, has had tens of thousands of visitors, and its most popular post is Best PhD Programs in Philosophy. This is an update to that post, based on this year’s data collection efforts.

An important caveat: this is not a ranking of PhD programs. I have been engaged in public conversations about rankings in philosophy for years now and have come to the conclusion that it is more useful to have sortable lists based on different criteria. The table on the homepage of APDA’s website is intended to provide just that. The table is currently sorted by overall student rating (for graduates 2012 and later), but can be sorted instead by average student rating of the program’s climate, teaching preparation, research preparation, financial support, the number of total 2012-2021 graduates, permanent academic placement rate for those graduates, placement rate into PhD-granting programs, temporary academic jobs, nonacademic jobs, or the primary nonacademic sectors for these graduates. This data can be examined in more detail by clicking on the name of each program.

Ok, so which programs are the best? I will focus in this post on two metrics: student ratings and employment, ending the post with some comments on overall employment trends. (Below, “*” is used to indicate programs that show up on both lists.)

Student Ratings

Let’s start with the programs that have the highest recommendation from their graduate students, focusing on current students and graduates from 2012 and later. These are divided by topical cluster. In a paper forthcoming in Metaphilosophy, Pablo Contreras Kallens, Dan Hicks, and I describe the method of clustering programs:

In machine learning, cluster analysis is any method that arranges units of analysis into subsets, i.e. clusters, based on some measure of similarity between the variables that characterize them (James, Witten, Hastie, & Tibshirani 2013, 10.3). In the current project, the units of analysis are philosophy PhD programs, and the variables that characterize them are aggregated from (1) the areas of specialization (AOS) of their PhD graduates and (2) the ‘keyword’ survey responses.

For this post I will use just three clusters, which were the best supported in our research: 1) analytic philosophy, 2) philosophy of science, and 3) historical, continental, and applied philosophy.

The following programs were given an average rating of “definitely would recommend”:

Analytic Philosophy

Rutgers University* (n=26; 4.73)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology* (n=19; 4.70)
Australian National University (n=20; 4.69)
University of Illinois at Chicago (n=6; 4.67)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill* (n=30; 4.65)
University of California, Berkeley (n=20; 4.60)
University of Southern California* (n=15; 4.60)
Yale University* (n=18; 4.53)
University of Michigan* (n=18; 4.50)

Philosophy of Science

Carnegie Mellon University (n=11; 4.55)
University of Cambridge, HPS (n=7; 4.50)

Historical, Continental, and Applied philosophy

University of California, Riverside* (n=14; 4.68)
The Catholic University of America* (n=6; 4.67)
Saint Louis University  (n=5; 4.60)

Some of these also show up with “very satisfied” ratings in the other domains, such as:
climate – Rutgers, ANU, CUA (other universities with “very satisfied” ratings in climate are Rice, Sheffield, KCL, St Andrews/Stirling, UConn, and UVA);
preparation for research – USC, Rutgers, MIT, Riverside (other universities with this rating include Pittsburgh HPS, Bowling Green, UCLA, Cornell, UPenn, Irvine LPS, Toronto, and Penn State)
financial support – USC and Yale (other universities with this rating include Emory, Notre Dame, NYU, Baylor, Vanderbilt, Rice, and Pittsburgh).

Unfortunately, none of these programs have average ratings of “very satisfied” on preparation for teaching, but programs that do have this rating are: Kansas, Villanova, Bowling Green, Baylor, Georgetown, Fordham, and University of Washington.

Employment

Permanent academic placement rate just means the proportion of graduates whose most recent employment is in a permanent academic job. Because most graduates (around 90%) prefer academic employment, and because permanent academic employment is preferred over temporary employment, this metric is the standard for our project as a measure of successful placement. Beginning with this measure, then, the following programs have permanent academic placement rates that are at least one standard deviation above the mean:

Analytic Philosophy

Yale University* (52 graduates; 71%)
University of Southern California* (49 graduates; 69%)
University of Virginia (38 graduates; 61%)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology* (45 graduates; 60%)
University of Florida (5 graduates; 60%)
University of Michigan* (47 graduates; 60%)
New York University   (54 graduates; 59%)
Harvard University (54 graduates; 56%)
Rutgers University* (63 graduates; 54%)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill* (56 graduates; 54%)

Philosophy of Science

University of Cincinnati (16 graduates; 69%)
University of California, Irvine LPS (24 graduates; 54%)
University of Pittsburgh, HPS (39 graduates; 54%)

Historical, Continental, and Applied philosophy

Baylor University (41 graduates; 63%)
Vanderbilt University (40 graduates; 63%)
Boston University (40 graduates; 58%)
University of Oregon (37 graduates; 57%)
University of California, Riverside* (30 graduates; 57%)
The Catholic University of America* (65 graduates; 55%)
Pennsylvania State University (50 graduates; 54%)

Many of these programs are also at least one standard deviation above the mean for permanent placement into PhD-granting programs (Irvine LPS, Yale, MIT, NYU, Michigan, Pittsburgh HPS, Harvard, Rutgers, and Penn State; other programs not on this list that have this quality include Cambridge HPS, Salzburg, Berkeley, Chicago CHSS, Carnegie Mellon, Princeton, Stanford, Oxford, LSE, Arizona, Cambridge, and Wash U).

Finally, nearly 20 programs are at least one standard deviation above the mean proportion of graduates with nonacademic employment, with proportion and primary nonacademic sectors listed:

University of Waterloo (43%: health; consultancy; education)
University of Guelph (41%: consultancy; arts; publishing)
University of California, Santa Cruz (41%: arts; consultancy)
Victoria University of Wellington (38%)
The University of Melbourne (36%: government; education)
University of Iowa (36%)
Fordham University (36%: education; tech; religion)
University of Otago (33%: education; government)
University of Rochester (32%: tech)
Western University (30%: consultancy; education; health; government; arts; publishing)
Brown University (30%: education; tech; law; consultancy)
Florida State University (30%: health; government; consultancy)
University of Dallas (29%: religion)
University of Arkansas (29%)
University of Kentucky (29%: education)
University of Toronto, IHST (27%: government)
University of Georgia (27%: education; non-profit/NGO)
University of Kansas (27%: tech; education; non-profit/NGO)
Georgetown University (26%: education; government; non-profit/NGO; tech; health)

Overall Trends

As reported at APDA, we can get a bird’s eye view of employment trends through a Sankey chart, with the number of graduates in different categories on the left, and the number of graduates employed in different types of jobs on the right. In this case graduates are split into three groups depending on the permanent academic placement rate of their PhD program, with those in programs of the highest placement rates in Group 1, middle rates in Group 2, and lowest rates in Group 3.

Comparing the thickness of the bars connecting the left to the right, you can see that Group 1 prefers hiring from Group 1 over Group 2 and 3, and that Group 2 prefers hiring from either Group 1 or 2 over Group 3. This may reflect the prestige bias reported by De Cruz (2018) and in Contreras Kallens, Hicks, and Jennings (forthcoming):

we used two separate methods to establish that prestige plays an important role in the hiring of job candidates into philosophy PhD programs, finding a significant gap in prestige between those graduate programs that hire from all other programs (low-prestige) and those graduate programs that tend to only hire from a select group.

The chart also gives a better sense of where all other graduates are employed, with the largest group in temporary academic positions that are not fellowships or postdocs.

Finally, as reported in Jennings and Dayer (2022), the proportion who find permanent academic jobs in their first year post-graduation does not seem to have changed in the pandemic and associated recession, as can be seen with the black dashed line in the graph below. That is, whereas the permanent academic placement rate does drop for more recent graduates, this is largely because it takes time for most graduates to find this type of position—recent graduates have had less time, and so are less likely to have a permanent academic placement. In contrast, there is no drop off when we focus on those graduates who found a permanent academic position in the same year they graduated. This indicates that the proportion of those finding permanent academic jobs has held steady, at least for those who find such jobs relatively quickly.

If we look at the first-listed areas of specialization for those 2012-2021 graduates in permanent academic employment, only three areas are at least one standard deviation above the mean permanent academic placement rate for all AOS’s: Comparative (9 graduates; 89%), Asian (38 graduates; 68%), and American (including Latin American: 31 graduates; 52%). Another three are one standard deviation below the mean: Economics (15 graduates; 27%), Aesthetics (153 graduates; 25%), and Action (69 graduates; 25%).

Trends are difficult to assess. I used indexed placement rates for each AOS, such that the placement rate of a specific AOS in a specific year is divided by the placement rate for all AOS’s that year. Using linear regression over these values reveals that some AOS’s have a positive slope over this time period: Technology, Asian, Aesthetics, Medieval/Renaissance, Biology including Environmental, Social/Political, Gender/Race/Sexuality/Disability Studies, Metaphysics, and Math have a 3% or greater slope for those years with at least 5 graduates. Other AOS’s have a negative slope: Action, Mind, Law, American including Latin American, Logic, Ethics, Epistemology, Applied Ethics including Bio and Medical, Value General, Meta-Ethics, and Decision Theory have a -3% or less slope for those years with at least 5 graduates. But this should be taken with a grain of salt since the limitation of 5 graduates leads to gaps in the data. Technology, for instance, has the highest slope but only three years worth of data (.36, 1.19, and 1.64 for 2018, 2019, and 2020), whereas Decision Theory has the lowest slope but only two years worth (1.15 in 2016 and 0.64 in 2019).

If you have ideas for how the project can improve, or other studies we should run, we would love to hear from you in the comments or over email: apda@ucmerced.edu.

Philosophers’ Views of Exploitation: A Survey

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 17/05/2022 - 2:00am in

Tags 

data, Exploitation

An interdisciplinary team of researchers is looking to find out more about what philosophers think about exploitation.


[Lida Moser, “Two Workers, Exxon Building” (detail)]

The survey’s authors are Benjamin Ferguson (Warwick)Peter Matthews (Middlebury)David Ronayne (ESMT Berlin), and Roberto Veneziani (Queen Mary University London). They write:

We are conducting a survey about academic philosophers’ views of what exploitation is, by judging how exploitative you feel various abstract scenarios are. It takes roughly ten minutes to complete the questions, with the option to answer more if you like. If you complete the survey, we will send you a copy of the eventual working paper summarizing the results, and we will enter you in our prize draw to receive one of ten $200 (or local currency equivalent) Amazon vouchers (unless you opt out).

You can find a link to participate in the survey here

The survey has passed internal ethics reviews.

Thank you for contributing your expertise!

Student Privacy and Pandemics: Understanding and Reducing Privacy and Security Risks

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 06/05/2022 - 4:20am in

I’m presenting several times at TLTCon 2022 later in May. As part of the conference, they’re having some “live” or synchronous sessions where participants and presenters can interact. One of my sessions was accepted and identified as a virtual, or asynchronous session. This means that I put all of my materials together and make them available for consumption at the please of the participant.

In this post, I’ll share some of my materials and thoughts about the virtual session.

Description

This session will briefly review data security and privacy protection regimes as they apply to institutions of higher education. Data security involves everything you need to know and do to secure the data you have and produce. Data privacy is framed by policies that may be handled by an institution’s legal or compliance office to ensure that people are aware of the laws and risks associated with the handling and dissemination of personal data. Data can be a powerful tool for parents, educators, students, and administrators. This includes not only student data, but also employee, alumni, donor, and vendor information.
   
The session will discuss the different types of student data, how that data is used, and the key policies, practices, and procedures that schools and districts should implement to create a culture of privacy. I outline some potential best practices to establish trust and promote transparency. Tips will be shared for talking with students about privacy including the new challenges posed by online learning.

Slide Deck

Video Recording

References

The post Student Privacy and Pandemics: Understanding and Reducing Privacy and Security Risks first appeared on Dr. Ian O'Byrne.

Philosophy Sees Decrease in PhDs Conferred In Recent Years

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 30/04/2022 - 12:02am in

Tags 

data, data

After a slow and steady increase from 1998 through 2011, the number of PhDs conferred in philosophy in the United States has been decreasing, according to a report from Humanities Indicators.

According to the report,

In recent years, the number of PhDs awarded declined among all the large disciplines except communication (where it rose by 5% from 2012 to 2020)… Programs in history and philosophy experienced the largest declines from 2012 to 2020 (falling 12% and 10% respectively). 

The full report, which has data on various aspects of graduate education in the humanities in the U.S., is here: State of the Humanities 2022: From Graduate Education to the Workforce.

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