gender

Error message

  • Deprecated function: The each() function is deprecated. This message will be suppressed on further calls in _menu_load_objects() (line 579 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/menu.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Notice: Trying to access array offset on value of type int in element_children() (line 6600 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).
  • Deprecated function: implode(): Passing glue string after array is deprecated. Swap the parameters in drupal_get_feeds() (line 394 of /var/www/drupal-7.x/includes/common.inc).

From the Vault: Labor Pains

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 14/09/2022 - 2:00am in

Since I hadn’t been able to get Angela to talk about what trial lawyering may have done to her sense of herself, her “identity” as a woman, I shifted to a different lens: Did she feel, I asked, that the presence of more women lawyers was humanizing the criminal law?...

Read More

Seven Decades of Social Progress – But is the UK Heading Backwards?

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 13/09/2022 - 12:30am in

The Byline Intelligence Team digs into the story of the past 70 years in data

GET THE CURRENT EDITION OF BYLINE TIMES

SIGN UP TO EMAIL UPDATES

The death of Queen Elizabeth II has led many people to reflect on the societal changes that took place during her 70 years on the throne. 

When she succeeded her father at the age of 26, the UK was rebuilding post-war; the NHS was five years old; and while the population managed on rations, a mass house-building programme helped to transform the bombed-out cities of the Second World War. 

Today, the NHS faces record waiting times and a staffing crisis; people struggle to feed their families as they choose between food and fuel; and house-building has stagnated, with council properties no longer a source of national pride, but often seen as a stigma, left to deteriorate. 

The population in England and Wales when Princess Elizabeth became Queen was 43,955,000 – up 59,829,000 by 2020. Her death at 96 is part of a trend where people are living longer: the Queen sent more than 175,000 telegrams to centenarians in the UK and the Commonwealth.

Much has changed since 1952. The Byline Intelligence Team examined the pace of change over the past 70 years and asked: are we returning to the 1950s?

DON’T MISS A STORY

Sign up to email updates from Byline Times

SIGN UP TO EMAIL UPDATES

Science and Medicine 

Arguably the greatest leap forward in the past 70 years has been in the field of medical science. Illnesses that were once a death sentence are now survivable. While new diseases have developed since 1952 – most notably, Coronavirus and HIV/AIDS – within a remarkably short space of time we have seen treatments that allow many people with these deadly viruses to survive and live normal lives. 

In 1952, the crude mortality rate for England and Wales was 1,131 per 100,000. In 2019 (before the pandemic), it was 893 per 100,000, representing a 26% decline. Life expectancy is now 81.6 years compared to 78 for a boy born in 1952, and 83 for a girl born the same year. 

Today, one in two of us will get cancer in our lifetimes. It’s a scary number, but more of us are surviving the ‘big C’ than ever before. In 1972 – two decades after the Queen's accession – only 45% of men diagnosed with cancer survived for more than a year in England and Wales, and 55% of women. By the time of her Golden Jubilee, in 2012, the number was 67% and 74% respectively. Half of people diagnosed with cancer will now survive for more than 10 years. 

One of the big indicators of a healthy nation is maternal and infant mortality rates. Back in 1952, the infant mortality rate was 29 per 1,000 live births; by 2022 it had dropped to just under four deaths per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality was 90 per 100,000 births in 1952. Fast forward 70 years and of the 2,173,810 women who gave birth in 2017-2019, 191 died during or up to six weeks after pregnancy, 495 during or up to one year after their pregnancy. This is, by any standards, a significant decline.

Social Change

Since 1952, the UK has seen the rise of three great social liberation movements: women’s rights, black liberation, and LGBTIQ liberation. Changes in the law, such the Race Relations Act in 1974 and the decriminalisation of homosexuality in 1967, have been accompanied by a rise in cultural visibility and improved equality. 

A total of 107 women served as MPs in the entire period of 1953-1997: today we have 225 women MPs in a single Parliament and our third female Prime Minister.

Legal changes for women include the Equal Pay Act 1970, the criminalisation of rape in marriage in 1991, and the 1967 Abortion Act.

The labour market participation of women reached a record high of 74.2% in 2018 compared to 72.4% in 1952 (the lowest point was 65.9% in 1983).

Women don’t need to have a man’s signature on their bank account or mortgage application. In the eyes of the law, at least, women have equal rights.

It took until 1987 before the Queen saw two black MPs in Parliament: today there are no white men in the four great offices of state, and 65 black and ethnic minority MPs. Black and ethnic minority people are entering higher education at increasing rates: in 2022, 12.2% of first year students were Asian, 8.7% were black, 4.5% had mixed ethnicity, and 2% were from another ethnic minority group.

The New Labour Governments of 1997 and 2001 introduced gay liberation laws, including equal age of consent, an end to the ban on gay people in the military and gay adoption, and civil partnerships which later became equal marriage rights under David Cameron. 

In 1952, the warning signs were there that the age of Empire was over. India became independent in 1947 and the post-war human rights settlement was putting pressure on the UK to end its policy of ‘legal lawlessness’ in colonial countries that were ruled with violence, racism and white supremacy.

During the Queen’s reign, 48 formerly colonial countries became independent, including numerous countries in Africa, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. The first was Sudan, in 1956. 

Much has been made with the Queen’s relationship with countries around the world, including those which formerly made up the British Empire. One third of the Queen's total overseas visits were to Commonwealth countries, and she attended 22 Commonwealth heads of government meetings as well as seven Commonwealth games. By the end of her reign, the Queen had visited all but two Commonwealth countries – Cameroon and Rwanda – making close to 200 trips. 

But King Charles III may be presiding over fewer Commonwealth countries than his mother, as people across the realm question whether they want a British monarch to remain as their head of state. Barbados became a republic last year and Antigua and Barbuda are due to hold a referendum on breaking with the monarchy.  

Poverty and Inequality

It’s challenging to track changing rates of poverty since 1952 due to the different ways in how it is measured. But there are indicators of where social mobility has improved – and where there has been regression. 

When the Queen came to the throne, education was only compulsory up to the age of 15, and children’s futures were decided by the '11+' exam. Today, education and training is required up to the age of 19, and young people’s aspirations have shifted too. In 2019, 50% of young people went to university; back in 1954 it was 3.4%

Workers’ rights are also an indication of a shift in equality: since 1952 numerous laws have been introduced to improve protections for workers such as the Health and Safety Act, and EU directives limiting working hours, protecting maternity rights, and supporting part-time workers. 

All of this seems much to rejoice in. But not all metrics have improved.

Back to the 1950s?

One of the shocking regressions is in housing. You only have to watch Cathy Come Home or  A Taste of Honey to understand the disturbing state of slum housing in mid-20th Century Britain. This crisis was met with mass house building – a need that was exacerbated by the destruction of thousands of homes in the Blitz – and those houses were built for the people. 

In 1952, 260,000 houses were built, of which four-fifths were council properties. Compare that to 2020, when fewer than 7,000 social homes were built in England – that same year 27,036 households were recorded in the homelessness system. 

The housing crisis is perhaps one the starkest reminders that, while much has improved for the UK in the past 70 years, the country is in a crisis that is arguably pushing it back to the 1950s. 

Even those who have a roof over their heads are struggling to stay warm. The cost of living crisis is forcing vulnerable families to choose between food and fuel, with charities concerned about an increase in cold weather deaths. Despite various ‘boomer’ commentators claiming that living without central heating did them no harm, the rate of excess winter deaths in the 1950s was 60,000 – that decreased steadily in the intervening decades to 23,200 in 2018/2019. The decrease was fuelled by warmer homes, but is set to rise again. 

The huge achievements of medical science cannot be underestimated but political decisions in recent years have led to record ambulance waiting times and more than 300,000 patients waiting a year for operations; a failure to meet cancer diagnosis and treatment targets; and the return of previously eradicated diseases. The polio vaccine was introduced in 1956 – today the virus has been detected in London. 

Maternal mortality may have decreased dramatically, but in one area a persistent inequality remains: black and ethnic minority women are four times more likely to die in childbirth than their white peers. This speaks to a greater crisis in racial equality that impacts on everything from health outcomes to prison populations, school exclusion rates and violent death. 

People from ethnic minority groups, especially Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups, are more likely than white British people to report limiting long-term illness and poor health. More than a quarter (27%) of the prison population are from an ethnic minority group, but only 13% of the UK population is black and ethnic minority. Exclusion rates for black Caribbean students in English schools are up to six times higher than those of their white peers in some local authorities.

While some in the country mourn the Queen, a community was also mourning the fatal shooting of Chris Kaba, a 24-year-old black man shot dead after rounds were fired from a police weapon. At least 154 people have been fatally shot by police between 1952 and 2021, with black men disproportionately killed in the latter decades. Up until the 1990s, the majority of fatal police shootings were in Northern Ireland. This data does include, for example, shooting terrorists during attacks such as in London Bridge, 2017.

Institutional misogyny continues to frustrate women’s equality. As for the other big liberation movement of the past 70 years – LGBTIQ rights – there has been a worrying rise in hate crime and a new Government determined to declare war on ‘wokery’ which appears to include attacks on sex, race and LGBTIQ equality. 

The argument can clearly be made that institutionalised racism in the UK today has its roots in the Empire. But people continue to see the country's imperial history as something to be proud of: a 2016 survey found that 43% of Britons surveyed said that the empire was a good thing, and 44% surveyed said they considered it to be a source of pride.

The decision to leave the European Union threatens progress on workers’ rights – with the laws created in the EU Social Chapter at risk of being scrapped by Liz Truss by the end of 2023. While most will be replaced with UK legislation, some may never return. This threat comes as the Government wages war on workers’ rights across the board, including by making it harder to take part in strike action. 

The hard-won changes over the past 70 years by liberation movements, workers, and a commitment to the post-war social contract have rarely felt so fragile as they do today.

This article was produced by the Byline Intelligence Team – a collaborative investigative project formed by Byline Times with The Citizens. If you would like to find out more about the Intelligence Team and how to fund its work, click on the button below.

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE BYLINE INTELLIGENCE TEAM

ShareEmailTwitterFacebook

SIGN-UP TO EMAIL UPDATES

OUR JOURNALISM RELIES ON YOU

Byline Times is funded by its subscribers. Receive our monthly print edition and help to support fearless, independent journalism.

SUBSCRIBE TO THE PRINT EDITION OF BYLINE TIMES FROM AS LITTLE AS £3.75 A MONTH

SUBSCRIBE TO BYLINE TIMES & GET THIS MONTH’S DIGITAL EDITION IMMEDIATELY

Get the Bylines App for iPhone and iPad

SIGN UP TO BYLINE TV PLUS

“Happy” Accidents

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 02/09/2022 - 9:27am in

Pregnancy and parenting will never “just work out” for everybody. Nine years ago, I told my mother that the man I was seeing didn’t want children. I wasn’t yet sure what I wanted, and at the time his certainty was both comforting and concerning: I appreciated that he knew his own mind but wanted to keep my options open. “Oh, well,” my mom said. “Sometimes certain people meet...

Source

New Editorial Team at Philosophia

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 01/09/2022 - 5:00pm in

In the wake of controversies over Philosophia‘s publishing of articles on “Jewish Influence” (see here), its editor’s decisions regarding referees (see here), and its editorial processes (see here), the journal’s publisher, Springer, has brought on a new editor.

Mitchell Green, professor of philosophy at the University of Connecticut, will be taking over the journal as editor-in-chief, replacing Asa Kasher (Tel Aviv), who (according to his website) has run the journal for over 50 years.

Professor Green writes:

The journal Philosophia, which has been published continuously since 1972, is pleased to announce a new Editorial Staff effective 1 September, 2022:
Mitch Green (Connecticut), Editor-in-Chief;
Emma Gordon (Glasgow), Associate Editor;
Iris Vidmar Jovanović (Rijeka), Associate Editor;
Jan Michel (Düsseldorf), Associate Editor;
Linda Radzik (Texas A&M), Associate Editor;
Kaley Rittichier (Connecticut), Managing Editor.
Longtime Editor Asa Kasher will remain as Co-Editor-in-Chief with Mitch Green until stepping down at the end of 2022, and Associate Editor Amir Horowitz will remain in that position until the end of 2022. It is expected that two more Associate Editors will be appointed in the coming months. Philosophia remains a general philosophy journal and welcomes broadly accessible submissions on all topics of current philosophical interest. Philosophia will continue to commission Author-Meets-Critics symposia, and starting in 2023 will commission state-of-the art essays accessible to a wide audience. Due to the growing number of high-quality submissions, the journal has moved from publishing four issues per year to five. For more information, please visit Philosophia’s homepage, or contact Mitch Green (Mitchell.green@uconn.edu).

Raging for the World That Is

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 27/07/2022 - 11:00pm in

Muriel Rukeyser’s political activities were inextricable from her literary experimentation.

Sexual Rights, Sexual Wrongs

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 22/07/2022 - 10:59pm in

On Amia Srinivasan’s “The Right to Sex.”

The Upside Down: Themself Alone

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 12/07/2022 - 8:33pm in

Tags 

gender, history

John Mitchinson explores a surprisingly modern role model from the backstreets of Jacobean London

GET THE CURRENT EDITION OF BYLINE TIMES

SIGN UP TO EMAIL UPDATES

Like much else in contemporary life, the debates about sex and gender aren’t quite as new and radical as they first appear. 

In the London of the early 17th Century, one of the most famous and controversial celebrities was born a woman but lived as a man.

Mary Frith, better known as Moll Cutpurse, started out as a pickpocket but soon developed grander ambitions. By 1608, she was performing in the streets and taverns of Southwark. Dressed in a doublet and leather jerkin, a sword hanging by her side and a pipe clamped between her teeth, she would strum her lute, sing rude songs, dance jigs and tell saucy stories. ‘Moll Cutpurse’ became an overnight sensation. More like a contemporary conceptual artist than the actors she hung round with, not only did she perform as a man, she lived like one too. 

By 1610, she had inspired one of the first female celebrity biographies, The Madde Prancks of Merry Moll of the Bankside, with her walks in Man's Apparel and to what Purpose by the playwright John Day. In 1611, two of the most successful writers of the age, Thomas Dekker and Thomas Middleton, asked her to close a performance of the play they had written about her, The Roaring Girl. This was the big time – an audience of 2,000 people watched Moll Cutpurse play herself.

This stunt proved too much for the authorities.

Despite the tradition of theatrical cross-dressing, a woman dressing as a man openly on the streets of Jacobean London was breaking the law. Mary was arrested for immoral behaviour and thrown into the correction house at Bridewell where she was whipped and forced to beat hemp stalks into rope. After three months, she re-emerged and took up where she left off. 

On Christmas Eve 1611, she was re-arrested for the same offence “to the disgrace of all womanhood”. This time she was hauled up in front of the Bishop of London, charged with prostitution as well as cross-dressing. The bishop pressed her to confess that she was “sexually incontinent”, but Mary would have none of it.

She cheerfully admitted to being a foul-mouthed, drunken thief, a gambler and a bear-baiter, but she objected to the accusation that she had sold her body. Though she looked like a man, she told the assembled clerics, a visit to her lodgings would show she was every bit a woman. This saucy response outraged the bishop. 

She was sentenced to public penance (dressed in a white shift) at the cross outside old St Paul’s. Mary turned it into a command performance, drinking herself insensible on six pints of sherry and weeping so piteously that the authorities released her to preserve the peace.

Mary had a very modern instinct for making money from fame.

By the time she was 30, she was a major player in the London underworld. Her days as a thief, and her hours spent in the bear gardens and taverns, had built up an unrivalled network of contacts on both sides of the law. This made her the perfect broker for stolen goods, but it also opened a new line of business: wealthy women looking for male companions. With the single-mindedness she brought to all her business ventures, she “chose the sprucest fellows the town afforded” and turned her house into an escort agency. 

Busy as she was with fencing and pimping, Mary would still occasionally play Moll.

The vintner and showman William Banks bet her £20 that she wouldn’t ride from Charing Cross to Shoreditch dressed as a man. Of course, she did so in style, flaunting a banner, blowing a trumpet and causing a riot in the process. Part of the excitement was because the horse she was riding was Banks’ Marocco, the most famous performing animal in London. Shod in silver, it could dance, play dice, count money and generally astonish audiences with its intelligence and dexterity. Moll Cutpurse riding Banks’ Horse would have been the Jacobean equivalent of Billie Eilish playing on stage with Paul McCartney.

It is this irrepressible side to Mary’s character that seems as fresh as ever. 

If the idea of ‘bawdy’ has fallen victim to over-the-top costume dramas, full of ale-swigging wenches in low-cut dresses, the word originally meant ‘joyous’. The joy that Mary brought to others with her unconventional life was borne out by the people who knew her. “She has the spirit of four great parishes,” wrote Middleton and Dekker, “and a voice that will drown all the city.”

Her final request was to be laid face down in her coffin because “as I have in my life been preposterous, so I may be in my death” – but it’s John Milton’s epitaph that captures her subversive spirit best: “She'll stand alone, and none come nigh her.”

John Mitchinson is a writer and publisher and co-founder of Unbound, the world’s leading crowdfunding platform for books. He was one of the founders of BBC’s ‘QI

ShareEmailTwitterFacebook

SIGN-UP TO EMAIL UPDATES

OUR JOURNALISM RELIES ON YOU

Byline Times is funded by its subscribers. Receive our monthly print edition and help to support fearless, independent journalism.

SUBSCRIBE TO THE PRINT EDITION OF BYLINE TIMES FROM AS LITTLE AS £3.50 A MONTH

SUBSCRIBE TO BYLINE TIMES & GET THIS MONTH’S DIGITAL EDITION IMMEDIATELY

Get the Bylines App for iPhone and iPad

SIGN UP TO BYLINE TV PLUS

Intergroup Dialogue in the Philosophy Classroom (guest post)

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 12/07/2022 - 6:30pm in

“Over 70% of our students… reported being more likely than before to listen to someone who held an opposing viewpoint…”

The following is a guest post* by Wes Siscoe (University of Cologne, University of Graz) and Zachary T. Odermatt (Florida State University. It is part of the series of weekly guest posts by different authors at Daily Nous this summer.

Intergroup Dialogue in the Philosophy Classroom: Helping Students to Have Productive Conversations about Race and Gender
by Wes Siscoe and Zachary T. Odermatt

If you’re reading this blog, we don’t need to tell you that there are a number of challenges to allowing undergraduates to have a class-wide, free-for-all conversation about the philosophy of race or the philosophy of gender. Nevertheless, ongoing dialogue is an important part of doing philosophy, making it a priority to teach students how to discuss even the most challenging of topics. In order to help students build the necessary skills to have constructive conversations about race and gender, we used an Innovation in Teaching Grant from the AAPT to create a course centered around weekly dialogue groups. In this post, we will describe the structure and format of our dialogue groups, explain how they were able to overcome some obvious challenges, and provide you with the resources to create dialogue groups in your classes.

Students have a number of fears when discussing controversial issues like race and gender. Many of our students were concerned that they would accidentally say something racist or sexist, while others worried that they would be the targets of racism or sexism. One promising method for confronting these fears is intergroup dialogue—sustained, small group discussions with participants from a variety of social identities. In 2008, a group of nine universities set out to explore whether intergroup dialogue could help students have conversations about race and gender, a project known as the Multi-University Intergroup Dialogue Research Project. What they found was that intergroup dialogues helped students improve their communication skills and grow in empathy and understanding, helping them to overcome their fears of being seen as racist or sexist or being the targets of racism or sexism.

In order to incorporate the lessons learned from the Intergroup Dialogue Project, we designed dialogue groups that emphasized student leadership and a strong sense of community. To begin with, we gave students ownership over their dialogue groups. The groups, each of which had 20 students, met once a week for the duration of the semester and were supervised by TAs. The first day of dialogue was dedicated to students creating their own group norms, the ground rules that would guide their discussions throughout the semester. Potential norms included the following:

  • Charitable Listening – Always assume that group members mean well when they share, and allow them to clarify if they feel that have been misunderstood
  • No Generalizing – No reasoning about others using generalizations, either positive or negative
  • Names Stay, Ideas Leave – Continue discussing interesting ideas outside of the classroom, but do so without attaching participants’ names to stories or beliefs

After the first day of dialogue groups, during which students chose their group norms, the dialogue sessions were facilitated—not by faculty or TAs—but by the students themselves. Students were assigned a partner along with a day that they would lead the discussion, creating a decentralized power structure that gave the students the primary role in creating a productive conversation.

In order to further build a sense of community, each session began with an ice-breaker activity to help students get to know one another on a more personal level. These activities were designed both to encourage familiarity and camaraderie as well as prompt thoughts and ideas that would be relevant to the subsequent discussion. To allow the sense of community time to develop, discussion topics at the beginning of the semester should be kept fairly non-confrontational. For instance, a helpful early semester discussion-starter might be, “What is a positive aspect of what you see as masculinity?” as opposed to, “What makes someone a man or a woman?” Discussion topics like these allow students to practice following the group norms without diving into the most difficult issues right at the outset.

Here are some of the most promising results from our course. In the post-course survey, over 80% of students agreed that they were more comfortable discussing issues surrounding race and gender than they were before, with only 5% saying they were less comfortable, while over 70% said that they are now more likely to initiate similar conversations outside of class. Over 70% of our students also reported being more likely than before to listen to someone who held an opposing viewpoint regarding issues of race or gender, while only 4% said that they were less likely to do so. Here is the full breakdown of how the groups affected the comfort levels of dialogue participants:

If you’re interested in adding dialogue groups to a class covering the philosophy of race or the philosophy of gender, then here is everything you need to get started. Feel free to download all of the rubrics and documentation, modifying them as necessary!

  1. Scheduling your Dialogue Groups – How you schedule your dialogue groups will depend on how many students you have. If your class has less than 25 students, then you can simply make one class session a week into a dialogue session that includes all of the students. If you have more than 25 students, then you should consider creating multiple dialogue groups. In our case, we had 120 students, so we created 6 dialogue groups that met once a week, with each TA leading 1-2 dialogue groups. If you do not have TAs, you can still create multiple groups by staggering when and how often they meet. If you have 40 students, for example, you can have a 20-student group meet each week, rotating which group meets, or you can schedule both groups each week, having them meet back-to-back.
  2. Creating Group Norms – The initial dialogue session was led by the course instructor or TA, explaining the structure and goals of the dialogue group. As a part of this session, the instructor or TA also led the students through the process of choosing their own discussion norms. Students might not be immediately familiar with what qualifies as a helpful group norm, so sharing a number of examples is often a good way to get started. See this link for more guidance on creating group norms, along with a full list of example norms.
  3. Assigning the Lesson Plan – At the initial dialogue session, students were randomly assigned a partner and a day that they would lead the discussion. Several days before their assigned discussion group, they turned in a lesson plan that included dialogue activities and discussion questions (here is an example of the lesson plan that one pair of students created). In order to help them create effective lesson plans, students were provided with this rubric, this list of possible dialogue activities, and feedback on their lesson plans, making revisions to their initial lesson plan before they ultimately led the group discussion.
  4. Grading the “Presentation” – Students also received a grade for how well they led their dialogue group. Along with earning points for revising and executing their lesson plan, they earned points by creating a sense of community on their discussion day—arriving early to greet everyone, encouraging everyone to participate in the conversation, and asking effective follow-up questions. The rubric that we used to grade dialogue leaders is here.

Maybe you’re not convinced yet that dialogue groups are the way to go, so before we close, we’d like to address a couple of concerns. First of all, having weekly dialogue groups takes away from instructional time, raising the possibility that such groups will prevent students from mastering the course content. Not a lot of research has been dedicated to this issue, but what has been done suggests that dialogue groups might add to, not detract from, student learning outcomes. When compared to large lecture courses, for example, intergroup dialogues did not detract from student mastery in a course on the sociology of race and ethnicity. This could be because dialogue groups are a form of active learning, giving students a chance to use concepts that they have been learning in the classroom.

Secondly, by adopting the dialogue format, the instructor relinquishes a fair amount of control over what students say, raising the concern that dialogue groups open the door to hurtful and demeaning comments. This is an important concern, and demonstrates why it is essential to have an instructor or TAs oversee the discussions. While they are not there to lead the group, the TA or the instructor has the final say on what does and does not qualify as constructive conversation, playing an important role in helping students feel comfortable enough to share their own thoughts and experiences. For a full description of our dialogue groups, along with the pedagogical considerations that went into designing them, see our forthcoming paper in Teaching Philosophy, or feel free to ask away in the comments!

[top image: detail of string art by Ani Abakumova]

Gimme My Poppers Or Else

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 28/06/2022 - 2:00am in

Tags 

gender, queer, Sex

It’s no secret gay sex and drugs go together like vodka and soda, or vodka and cranberry, or vodka and my mouth. Pop the words “chem sex” into a Google search and you’ll get no end of salacious fear-mongering reportage barely concealing cultural assumptions of self-harm while peddling journalistic neutrality. ...

Read More

Gender, truth, populist politics

Published by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 14/06/2022 - 10:52am in


A new book about feminism, education, and the challenges to truth from new right-wing politics has been published, with general analyses, case studies, and discussions of how to respond.

I have a chapter in it. Here's the reference: Connell, Raewyn. 2022. Truth, power, pedagogy: Feminist knowledge and education in a 'post-truth' time. Pp. 65-77 in Penny Jane Burke, Julia Coffey, Rosalind Gill and Akane Kanai, ed., Gender in an Era of Post-truth Populism: Pedagogies, Challenges and Strategies. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

@font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1107305727 0 0 415 0;}@font-face {font-family:"Bookman Old Style"; panose-1:2 5 6 4 5 5 5 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 0 0 0 159 0;}p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman",serif; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}.MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;}

Pages